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History of the game. Russian roulette gives no second chance. Russian roulette was most probably derived from a game played between Russian soldiers in 19th century. However, this is only one theory regarding the history of the game as there is no certain mention of the game in any of the literature of that time.


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The Man who Invented Russian Roulette - The Forgotten Life of Georges Surdez ARTICLE Bright Review
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The suicidal gun game of Russian Roulette originated in Tsarist Russia but remained nameless until it hit America just before the Second World War.
Its gambling moniker was the invention of Georges Arthur Surdez, a Swiss-born and Brooklyn-based writer of pulp fiction stories.
After you've read this check out my new blog for all kinds of cultural and military weirdness.
The Man Who Invented Russian Roulette The Forgotten Life of Georges Arthur Surdez 1900-49 Scattered farm houses with roofs the colour of dark chocolate cling to sloping daffodil meadows at the foot of the Jura mountains.
Cows amble through pastures with clanking brass bells around their necks.
Pure picture postcard to outsiders, this tranquil part of Switzerland is home to a town German-speakers know as Biel but francophones prefer to call Bienne.
Georges Arthur Surdez was born here in 1900 to a French-speaking middle class family with its fair share of demons.
The arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century changed Bienne from a rustic backwater to a bustling town.
Its watchmakers seized the opportunity to transform their industry.
The days of craftsmen working alone in cottage back rooms were gone.
Surdez shared the family home with an elder brother and three elder sisters.
An adult brother and sister were making new lives for themselves in America.
They had been gone so long that the smart toys they sent Surdez at Christmas stirred no memories.
His father Eugene was a watchmaker, and mother Marie happy to devote her life to her children.
Like many outwardly respectable families, a maggot wriggled inside the apple.
That was putting it mildly.
Eugene Surdez's obsessive adultery was the most public display of his dissatisfaction with his life.
He was dissatisfied with the love of his wife.
He was dissatisfied with his job as a watchmaker.
Most of all he was dissatisfied living in Bienne while his two eldest children prospered in the United States.
As a young man, Eugene lived in New York for four years and remained awed by his memories of the city.
He never forgot the sight of a giant stone arm displayed in Madison Square as the Statue of Liberty arrived from France piece by piece.
After problems with his job, he returned to Switzerland in 1882 and spent the next thirty years regretting the move.
The regret oozed out in drink and adultery.
It poisoned his marriage.
Surdez was only a few years old when his father pulled the first of what would be many disappearing acts.
Eugene abandoned work and home for several weeks, then reappeared to announce he had found another job in a distant town.
The family had no choice but to follow him.
More moves occurred over the next decade, triggered by Eugene's pursuit of a new mistress or a drunken brawl that attracted the attention of the police.
The family eventually moved across the border to a series of French towns, rented rooms, and temporary friends.
The uprootings did not bother Surdez, who decided at a young age he liked travel.
At the age of three the little Swiss boy smuggled himself aboard a delivery cart outside the family lodgings at the Auberge du Cerf Inn and was taken on a ride through the green valleys of the Jura before the driver returned him to his frantic parents.
Surdez was a bright child whose reading covered Swiss history, William Tell, the life of Napoleon, stories of the French Foreign Legion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, and translations of American Dime novels, which were pocket-sized adventure stories full of heroes, villains, and gunfights.
A favourite was Texas Jack who battled Red Indians in the Wild West.
His elder brother Gilbert died falling from a tree.
Not long after sister Blanche was killed in a sleigh accident.
The birth of a boy in 1907, also named Gilbert, brought Eugene and Marie back together for a while but Surdez's father could not stop chasing other women for long.
The family struggled on for five more years until Surdez's now adult sisters, inspired by their father's tales of New York, announced they intended to emigrate to America.
Perhaps Marie believed the break up of the family would have been last rites for her marriage.
To everyone's surprise she suggested they all start a new life across the Atlantic, a fantasy of Eugene's she had previously dismissed.
Her own fantasy, less easily fulfilled, was that the move would stop her husband's adultery.
Surdez looked forward to living life to the full in the new world.
Perhaps he could be a racing driver?
Or a cowboy like Texas Jack?
The possibilities seemed endless.
But America had a few surprises in store.
Welcome To America Georges Surdez first saw the United States on 24 September 1912, a twelve-year-old boy hugging the rail of the SS Touraine as the New York skyline grew on the horizon.
Any enthusiasm Surdez felt for life in America was short lived.
The school system traumatised him.
His wages barely covered the rent on a small Westchester apartment.
Marie missed the open spaces and clean air of the Swiss valleys.
Her daughters wanted their freedom.
No-one had time to comfort young Georges in his unhappiness.
Alienated and alone he turned to his books for company and was drawn more than ever to the rootless heroes of the Foreign Legion.
In the early years of the twentieth century itinerant veterans were a common sight in France and Switzerland; roulette real casinos sold trinkets door-to-door to supplement their government pensions and most drank too think, games online roulette free excellent />Back in Switzerland, one named Emile had told a young Surdez unsuitable stories about the realities of life in the Legion.
Emile described how his friend was shot in the jaw by pirates of the Black Flag during a fire fight on an Indochinese river and bled to death on a raft.
Surdez preferred the one about a feast thrown by legionnaires when their compound was threatened by Chinese guerrillas during the 1884-85 war for Tonkin province in north Vietnam.
The legionnaires caroused all night while in the centre of the feast an executioner decapitated Chinese prisoners.
The next day the guerrillas awoke to the sight of heads swinging by their pigtails from every branch of every tree in the compound.
Brutality was common in an organisation which welcomed the dispossessed and desperate of every nationality into its ranks.
Created in 1831 as the spearhead of France's imperial "civilising mission" in North Africa the Legion quickly became the destination of choice for criminals on the run and the emotionally disturbed looking to forget their pasts.
The fiction Surdez read about the French Foreign Legion presented a more romantic picture.
Ouida's English novel 'Under Two Flags' was a best seller in the 1860s and its plot provided the blueprint for many Legion tales to come roulette reality show online English aristocrat Victor joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero while French writers like Roger de Beauvoir and Georges d'Esparbès explored similar territory the next century.
Surdez read and re-read the French language stories he had brought from Europe.
Then in 1914 he discovered a Foreign Legion tale in the American pulp magazine All-Story.
The plot owed a lot to Ouida athletic West Point graduate Max Doran joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero but it introduced Surdez to American pulps and changed his life.
Pulp History Spawned in 1896 when Frank Andrew Munsey transformed his ailing magazine The Golden Argosy: Freighted With Treasures For Boys And Girls into plain Argosy, a home for adult adventure stories, the pulps were successors to the Dime novels Surdez had read in Switzerland.
Munsey discovered readers were more interested in racy stories than the budget paper stock he used to cut costs.
They did not care that the words blurred as ink spread through the Argosy's porous pages or the grey paper turned yellow in a month.
The stories were fast paced tales of cowboys, Indians, detectives, pilots, adventurers, soldiers, and the occasional French Foreign Legionnaire.
The covers were garish and eye catching: scantily clad blondes in danger, bi-planes locked in europa casino combat, square jawed adventurers punching out foreign villains.
The pulps were home to the low rent end of the market.
Their small ads were filled with Charles Atlas body building courses, cures for bad breath or weak bladders, photographs of 'French models', and booklets promising the power of hypnosis over young women.
Mainstream culture looked down its nose at the pulps and blamed them for moral degeneracy amongst the young.
Educationalists complained see more pulp readers, and sometimes writers, were only a short step ahead of illiteracy.
But publishers were prepared to put up with the griping history of russian roulette game one good reason: they made a lot of money.
Some of it was even passed on to the writers who fed the industry's insatiable appetite for thrilling fiction.
Raymond Chandler, creator of gumshoe Philip Marlowe, learned his trade in the pulps.
The sheer number of pulp magazines was staggering.
In a typical week news stands groaned under the weight of Adventure, Argosy, Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Detective Story Magazine, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, History of russian roulette game Stories, Golden Fleece, and hundreds more.
Titles appeared and died like mayflies.
When sales fell, the publishers folded the title and started another.
Surdez devoured them all.
The expatriate Swiss left school at sixteen with a head full of pulp adventure but no qualifications.
His English had improved to native standard but this had not saved him from ostracism by fellow pupils.
His French language skills did help to get a job.
The world war was raging in Europe.
While millions of men, including his beloved Foreign Legionnaires, lived like troglodytes in trench systems cut through Belgium and France, Surdez worked as a clerk in the New York office of the French High Commission.
Surdez registered for the draft when America entered the war in 1917 brown hair, grey eyes, 5'6" but was not one of the 1.
With the war over he joined an American timber firm with interests in the Côte D'Ivoire.
In 1919 Surdez sailed for the French colony, a humid square of forest and plantations in west Africa.
His work in the Côte D'Ivoire was clerical and bored him so much he resigned to strike out as an independent trader.
On business trips to Morocco and French Soudan he met serving legionnaires and heard their stories.
He even considered joining up but, after seeing Legion life first-hand, realised he was not cut out for it.
Life in the colony was dangerous enough without a rifle in his hands.
Native bandits, Malaria, and Guinea Worm disease all threatened to give Surdez a grave plot in the African sun.
Profits were not high enough to justify the risks so the Swiss closed his trading business in 1920 and returned to New York.
He may have been telling the truth.
But for the next twenty-seven years, apart from a few trips abroad, he never left the country.
The pulps were to blame.
Dollar a Thousand Words Back in New York with experience of French imperial Africa but little else, Surdez took a clerking job while he decided his future.
The city was booming.
The financial district was a pin cushion of skyscrapers and Broadway a dazzling strip of electric light.
In the post-war prosperity, pulps were selling more than ever.
Surdez still liked reading pulp adventures and discovered that bigger magazines like Argosy and Adventure offered good money for fresh fiction.
His travels in Africa had been history of russian roulette game exciting than those portrayed in the magazines - more paperwork and less gunfire - but he had the experiences to tell a good story.
Through 1921 and early 1922 Surdez spent his free time writing short stories in his Brooklyn apartment.
He worked in shirt sleeves during the summer as the kids outside played in the spray from broken fire hydrants.
In the winter he wrapped up in a sweater to pound the nickel keys of his typewriter while heating pipes complained through the apartment walls.
Pulp writing attracted a mixed bunch.
Well-oiled hacks used to turning out any story in any style if there was money at the end of it rubbed shoulders with genuine genre fans like Surdez, and oddballs like Albert Richard Wetjen who touch typed his stories in the dark.
Wetjen had begun his career writing without electricity in a one-room Salem shack and now his imagination only sparked with the lights off.
Observing from the sidelines with a cynical eye was a tough crew who had lived what they wrote.
Gordon MacCreagh explored Abyssinia with an expedition searching for the Ark of the Covenant.
Talbot Mundy had been a poacher and jailbird in India.
Best known was Borden Chase, who joined the pulps when his regular job as a driver for a Chicago bootlegger was terminated after Al Capone's gunmen mowed down his employer.
Writing about gangsters in New York seemed safer https://entermarket.ru/roulette/jeux-de-casino-roulette.html living it for real.
The crime stuff came easy to me so that's what I did.
They paid a dollar a thousand words.
I once heard a story that Frank Munsey would evaluate the worth of a story by how heavy the manuscript felt in his hand, but that never happened to me!
His early works were a mix of popular pulp themes - battles in darkest Africa, tough detectives and crime thrillers.
Argosy accepted the stories Adventure turned down.
The Swiss was able to quit clerking when 'A Game In The Bush', an atypical romantic adventure, was bought by the New York-based Film Booking Offices of America FBO and in 1927 turned into the movie 'South Sea Love'.
The FBO was run by Joseph Kennedy, patriarch of a sprawling Boston Catholic family who would later guide his son John to the White House.
Made silent just as talkies came into fashion, its stars were second rate and director Ralph Ince well past his best.
He had already embarked on a literary path that would sustain him for the next fifteen years.
Sons of the Sword Surdez had experimented with French Foreign Legion fiction since the early days of his career.
But it was the publication of P C Wren's novel 'Beau Geste' the following year that created a market for all things legionary.
Beau Geste's plot was familiar to readers of Ouida aristocratic Englishman Michael 'Beau' Geste joins the Legion to escape social shame etc.
Englishman Wren never served in the Foreign Legion but had done his research and told a good yarn.
The Legion became all the rage.
Laurel and Hardy signed up in 'Beau Hunks', and even Mickey Mouse donned the kepi.
Pulp editors wanted a piece of legionary action and Surdez was well placed to exploit their hunger.
But he shared Hemingway's interest in the psychology of men of action.
Surdez's legionnaires were not Ouida-like aristocrats joining up to escape their pasts, but professional soldiers plagued by moral weakness and doubt in a foreign land.
His work sold well Adventure alone took over 100 stories in the twenties but Surdez never made it into the top tier of pulp writers whose name on the cover sent a magazine flying off the new stands.
He was too sparing with the blood and guts.
His 1927 novel 'Demon Caravan' avoids action for a well-observed power struggle between moderate and conservative Muslims in a remote kingdom.
Readers were left with the sneaking suspicion Surdez regarded himself as a serious writer.
He tried to cover himself with exotic settings, dark-eyed native girls and occasional gratuitous titillation.
Good money could be made in the pulps, but writers had to work hard for it.
Bedford-Jones 'King of the Pulps' was living proof a man could even get rich behind a typewriter.
With at least four stories always on the go, so if inspiration dried up on one he switched to another, Bedford-Jones could write 25,000 words a day to meet an emergency deadline and regarded less than 6,000 before bedtime on an ordinary day as laziness.
A friend rang his home to be told by Bedford-Jones' wife that her husband was hard at work on a novel.
Surdez was not as prolific as Bedford-Jones no-one was but he churned out enough short stories for the hungry maw of the pulp industry to ensure a healthy bank balance.
Along with a fat cheque from Joe Kennedy for 'South Sea Love', the pulp money made him abandon any lingering thoughts of leaving for Africa or Switzerland.
In 1928 he became a naturalised American citizen, encouraged by his wife Edith McKenna, an older schoolteacher he had married in 1922.
She wanted him to put down roots.
But despite assurances to Edith, psychologically Surdez remained with one foot in America and the other in Europe.
America was the nation which bewildered and divided his family and he never quite trusted it.
The year after his citizenship was granted Surdez took his wife on a long tour of the French colonies in Africa and the Far East, where he squeezed more stories out of any legionnaires he met.
The couple left an America that was confident and prosperous.
When they history of russian roulette game in 1930 the economy was in ruins.
Russian Roulette While the Surdezs were away, share prices tumbled on the New York stock exchange.
Panic selling followed and, within weeks of the crash on Wall Street, economic disaster surged like a tsunami over the nation's financial markets.
Businesses went under and banks closed.
Unemployment and hardship succeeded the boom time of the twenties.
Freelancers in the pulp world heard the wolf howling at the door louder than most.
In 1929 Surdez could submit work to seventy-three pulp magazines.
Three years later that number had dwindled to thirty-five and rates of pay to less than half a cent a word.
Many pulpsters stopped writing and took what jobs they could to get by.
Surdez refused to quit.
He defiantly gave his profession as 'magazine writer' in the 1930 census and boasted he was known abroad - 'They March From Yesterday', a collection of Legion tales, had been published in Britain, and his stories were bootlegged for Seikkailujen Maailma, a Finnish pulp magazine with a relaxed attitude to copyright.
Adventure and Argosy continued to run Surdez's Legion stories but he had to look outside the pulp world to pay the rent.
Collier's Illustrated Weekly was a popular mainstream magazine which made its reputation pioneering socially-concerned photojournalism in the early years of the century.
In the 1920s it went middle-brow after discovering readers preferred serialised novels to exposés of the child labour laws.
The Wall Street Crash knocked it down a peg.
Advertising revenue during the 1930s was never more than half its pre-Crash level.
Surdez wanted to get on board.
The magazine's mid-thirties incarnation was an easy-reading mixture of aspirational articles on subjects like big game fishing or business success, the occasional painted pin-up, and crowd pleasing fiction, often just as escapist as anything in Adventure.
Surdez polished his prose and sent in his work.
Surdez was a cut above his fellow pulp hacks his characters had at least two dimensionsbut he would have disappeared from the cultural memory like Bedford-Jones and Borden Chase if it had not been for a short story in Collier's that continued https://entermarket.ru/roulette/download-free-roulette-for-blackberry.html send out ripples across the years long after the stone had been thrown.
On 30 January 1937 a 1,600-word piece of fiction by This web page called 'Russian Roulette' appeared in the magazine.
A briskly told tale of adventure, gambling, and death amongst Foreign Legionnaires in an isolated North African outpost, the story christened and popularised the game that would kill more than a thousand Americans.
With lost carbons, missing letters, and apartment moves, Surdez did not leave many papers behind and the few he did do not explain where he got the name for Russian Roulette.
The suicidal gun game had been around since at least 1920, as adventurers in Russia during the civil war had testified, but Surdez was the first to use the name in print.
It may have been floating around unrecorded before Surdez nailed it to the page.
The odds are that the Swiss came up with it himself.
It was the kind of tough guy gambling-with-death approach that years of working in the Pulps gave you.
The story takes the form of a letter from Hugo Feldheim, a young German recruit, to his superior officer asking for advice on how to cover up the suicide of a Russian comrade.
Sergeant Burkowski is a compulsive gambler who regularly fleeces his comrades in games of chance.
When they cut their losses and refuse to play he becomes depressed.
In conversation with Feldheim he asks whether the German has heard of 'Russian Roulette'.
It was practiced, says Burkowski, in Romania during 1917, the last days of the Russian participation in the World War when the Tsar's demoralised army was on the retreat.
There were five chances to one that the hammer would set off a live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
Sometimes it happened, sometimes not.
The hammer falls on an empty chamber and the Russian is invigorated.
He continues to play Russian Roulette in this way for several weeks.
Burkowski still likes to gamble and challenges Feldheim to a variant of the game.
He will remove all but one of the bullets from the revolver, spin the cylinder and see if he can avoid death.
Feldheim tries to argue him out of it but is pushed into making a bet.
The Russian lives and Feldheim loses a month's wages.
Later that night a contrite Burkowski visits him to return the money.
He cheated, he explains, as he knew where the bullet was in the cylinder.
Feldheim refuses to accept the money and later that night the Russian shoots himself.
I wondered whether he had tried the bet all over again, privately.
But when I examined the weapon, I discovered that all the chambers were loaded.
I hope the Lieutenant can tell me how to arrange this story so that it may satisfy the authorities.
It is not quite clear to me whether it would be right to reveal that he had shot himself for cheating.
On the other hand, have I the right to falsify an official report?
Eight months later a young man called Thomas H Markley jnr shot himself dead on his twenty-first birthday in Austin, Texas.
His was the first Russian Roulette death in America.
And something scurried in.
Motive and Memory Georges Arthur Surdez died on 5 November 1949 in Brooklyn.
His last ten years had been tough.
The pulps picked up in the late thirties and for a few years Surdez was able to place a decent amount of work with them.
Then in 1941 the war reached America.
Japanese Zero fighters dived out of a clear blue afternoon sky and atacked Pearl Harbour, the Hawaiian naval base.
Four days later Nazi Germany declared war on America.
He could have done with the regular army pay check.
His Foreign Legion stories had recently become about as popular as fresh shrapnel and money was becoming a problem.
In June 1940 Nazi Germany had overrun France.
A New Order was established.
Legionnaires found themselves having to choose between the collaborationist French government at Vichy, far-right extremists in Paris, and a resistance movement hiding weapons in every attic.
That kind of complex situation did not translate well into magazines across the Atlantic.
Surdez managed to place a few more stories with the pulps, all set before the war, but the pulps soon made it clear they wanted nothing to do with the Foreign Legion.
His new stories were about the French resistance.
Contemporary war stories were money makers.
Too much competition and not enough magazines.
The pulp market plunged down again during the war due to a shortage of paper and, crucially, metal for staples.
Surdez spread his talent thinly over a number of different publications but times were hard.
His marriage collapsed in 1943 when Edith moved out to live with another man.
Surdez consoled himself with an autobiographical novel of his childhood, his first conventional mainstream writing venture.
When it came out in 1945 reviews were respectful, but sales low.
Surdez went back to the surviving pulps and managed to keep a roof above his head until death came knocking four years later.
The only publication to record his passing was the Wilson Library Gazette, a publication for librarians to keep their card indexes history of russian roulette game to date.
There are lots of unanswered questions about 'Russian Roulette', not least why Surdez thought it was more dangerous to play it with one bullet than five, but the one that screams loudest for an answer is why the Swiss did not step forward during his lifetime to take credit for inventing, or at more info popularising, the practice.
By the time of his death Russian Roulette was an established part of American popular culture.
If he missed those he might have read the New York Times 17 February 1949 story about Phillip Fernette.
Or the 21 September 1947 story about two teenage boys who shot a girl dead by playing Russian Roulette with the gun pointing at her chest.
Maybe he simply missed the signs that his story had slid off the printed page and into real life.
Writers, especially those hacking out stories daily when not cursing their ex-wives, can be an insular mob.
Or perhaps the public arena was not for him.
Hints exist, bat squeaks of suspicion among the historical background noise, that Surdez could have had political reasons for wishing to stay out of the post-WWII spotlight.
Surdez may have followed him down that road.
Surdez have skated over the worst aspects of legionary life - 'stories of atrocities in the Legion, or by the Legion, hand me a laugh' — but he always portrayed Black and Arab characters click the following article />You steal the desert away from the Arabs and you have taken land from the black people.
There is only one difference between you and me.
I steal for myself.
Not much in the way of evidence but, combined with the fact that in the early 1930s the French Sûreté in Africa intercepted letters to Surdez from black independence activist Amadou Sall, the alarm bells ring a little louder.
Sall was a political nationalist from Senegal who had lived in New York until the government deported him in 1931.
He was active on behalf of the United Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey's UNIA.
By the time Surdez's pen friend wrote to him, the UNIA was sinking.
Flamboyant founder Marcus Garvey had been kicked out.
But it still remained a formidable organisation committed to racial equality and anti-colonialism, ideals it was prepared to back up with armed paramilitaries like the Read more Legion.
The FBI monitored it.
European powers in Africa kept a wary eye on the situation.
The letters from Sall may have been entirely innocent or they could be an indication Surdez was more radical in his opinions than his French Foreign Legion stories indicated.
Frost was growing on the cold read article by the late 1940s.
Twenty-two Russian Roulette players died in America the year Surdez passed away.
Like a watch ticking on the wrist of a corpse, the practice he introduced to America lived on.
For the record, Surdez worked in the Powder Bureau of the French High Commission during World War One.
The Amadou Sall letters are, briefly, mentioned in 'The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans, 1923-1945' University of California Press, 2006 H.
Russian roulette deaths reported in Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, and Nevada State Journal.
Behind The Scenes This is a version of a sample chapter I wrote for a projected book on the history of Russian Roulette.
I started the research after finishing the Spanish version ofgot derailed a few months later by having to rewrite Franco for the English language version, then got back on track in 2009.
It stayed that way after the problems were mopped up because I discovered a new obsession with of the 1960s.
Will Christopher Othen's history of Russian Roulette still get written?
Write to your MP.
Recommended Articles For You One hundred years of bankrupt British aristocrats, corrupt golden youths, and frankly untrustworthy remittance men.
Ideal reading for social-climbing sociopaths.
All website material © Christopher Othen 2009-2014.

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Russian Roulette is an American game show created and executive produced by Gunnar Wetterberg that ran for two seasons on Game Show Network from June 3, 2002 to June 13, 2003. The show was hosted by Mark L. Walberg and announced by Burton Richardson .


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The history of Russian roulette. The history of Russian roulette is very cloudy. Some sources state that the Russian army did this in Romania in 1917, but many others cite its origins even earlier, in nineteenth century Russia. Mikhail Lermontov’s 1840 novella “The Fatalist” even depicts someone surviving a game of Russian roulette.


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Orange Roulette is a very sad game about a hopeless orange that will play a deadly game in the hopes of getting shipped home. It's only a game, so don't try this at home! Orange Roulette was developed by Mikey Houser.


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This article needs additional citations for.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: — · · · · December 2017 Russian Roulette Created by Gunnar Wetterberg Presented by Narrated by Country of origin United States No.
The show was hosted by and announced by.
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The contestant has the option to pass on a question and return to it if time allows.
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The timer only starts ticking after the first question has been read by the host.
Saying "My answer is" before the answer is no longer required.
There is also a camera underneath each of the trapdoors to catch footage of the contestant dropping from another angle.
Some may also have a maximum time limit of 15 seconds instead of 10 to answer questions.
The Polish version has 30 seconds to answer the question in season one and 20 seconds in season two.
Most versions of the check this out except for the versions in the U.
As of 2013, there are no versions of the show still in production internationally.
However, China's religional broadcaster Shandong TV revived the show in Spring 2015 in substitution of the previous edition using the format ofthis version using a format that a little different to other ones — and the daily prize fund always starts at 50,000, and each correct answer before the final round earns RMB¥1,000 to the final pot.
The Chinese version is broadcast live on weekdays, and runs for 65 minutes including commercials.
VIP version Milan Kalinić 2.
Dragan Marinković Maca 2.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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A two player Russian Roulette game featuring two game modes each playable with two players, or one player and a CPU. Originally developed to be played on mobile phones. Unfortunately problems occurred, but you can play this game from your phone browser. HOW TO PLAY:


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Find sources: — · · · · December 2017 Russian Roulette Created by Gunnar Wetterberg Presented by Narrated by Country of origin United States No.
The show was hosted by and announced by.
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There is also a camera underneath each of the trapdoors to catch footage of the contestant dropping history of russian roulette game another angle.
Some may also have a maximum time limit of 15 seconds instead of 10 to answer questions.
The Polish version has 30 seconds to answer the question in season one and 20 seconds in season two.
Most versions of the show except for the versions in the U.
As of 2013, there are no versions of the show still in production internationally.
However, China's religional broadcaster Shandong TV revived the show in Spring 2015 in substitution of the previous edition using the format ofthis version using a format that a little different to other ones — and the daily prize fund always starts at 50,000, and each correct answer before the final round earns RMB¥1,000 to the final pot.
The Chinese version is broadcast live on weekdays, and runs for 65 minutes including commercials.
VIP version Milan Kalinić 2.
Dragan Marinković Maca 2.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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The suicidal gun game of Russian Roulette originated in Tsarist Russia but remained nameless until it hit America just before the Second World War.
Its gambling moniker was the invention of Georges Arthur Surdez, this web page Swiss-born and Brooklyn-based writer of pulp fiction stories.
After you've read this check out my new blog for all kinds of cultural and military weirdness.
The Man Who Invented Russian Roulette The Forgotten Life of Georges Arthur Surdez 1900-49 Scattered farm houses with roofs the colour of dark chocolate cling to sloping daffodil meadows at the foot of the Jura mountains.
Cows history of russian roulette game through pastures with clanking brass bells around their necks.
Pure picture postcard to outsiders, this tranquil part of Switzerland is home to a town German-speakers know as Biel but francophones prefer to call Bienne.
Georges Arthur Surdez was born here in 1900 to a French-speaking middle class family with its fair share of demons.
The arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century changed Bienne from a rustic backwater to a bustling town.
Its watchmakers seized the opportunity to transform their industry.
The days of craftsmen working alone in cottage back rooms were gone.
Surdez shared the family home with an elder brother and three elder sisters.
An adult brother and sister were making new lives for themselves in America.
They had been gone so long that the smart toys they sent Surdez at Christmas stirred no memories.
His father Eugene was a watchmaker, and mother Marie happy to devote her life to her children.
Like many outwardly respectable families, a maggot wriggled inside the apple.
That was putting it mildly.
Eugene Surdez's obsessive adultery was the most public display of his dissatisfaction with his life.
He was dissatisfied with the love of his wife.
He was dissatisfied with his job as a watchmaker.
Most of all he was dissatisfied living in Bienne while his two eldest children prospered in the United States.
As a young man, Eugene lived in New York for four years and remained awed by his memories of the city.
He never forgot the sight of a giant stone arm displayed in Madison Square as the Statue of Liberty arrived from France piece by piece.
After problems with his job, he returned to Switzerland in 1882 and spent the next thirty years regretting the move.
The regret oozed out in drink and adultery.
It poisoned his marriage.
Surdez was only a few years old when his father pulled the first of what would be many disappearing acts.
Eugene abandoned work and home for several weeks, then reappeared to announce he had found another job in a distant town.
The family had no choice but to follow him.
More moves occurred over the next decade, triggered by Eugene's pursuit of a new mistress or a drunken brawl that attracted the attention of the police.
The family eventually moved across the border to a series of French towns, rented rooms, and temporary friends.
The uprootings did not bother Surdez, who decided at a young age he liked travel.
At the age of three the little Swiss boy smuggled himself aboard a delivery cart outside the family lodgings at the Auberge du Cerf Inn and was taken on a ride through the green valleys of the Jura before the driver returned him to his frantic parents.
Surdez was a bright child whose reading covered Swiss history, William Tell, the life of Napoleon, stories of the French Foreign Legion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, and translations of American Dime novels, which were pocket-sized adventure stories full of heroes, villains, and gunfights.
A favourite was Texas Jack who battled Red Indians in the Wild West.
His elder brother Gilbert died falling from a tree.
Not long after sister Blanche was killed in a sleigh accident.
The birth of a boy in 1907, also named Gilbert, brought Eugene and Marie back together for a while but Surdez's father could not stop chasing other women for long.
The family struggled on for five more years until Surdez's now adult sisters, inspired by their father's tales of New York, announced they intended to emigrate to America.
Perhaps Marie believed the break up of the family would have been last rites for her marriage.
To everyone's surprise she suggested they all start a new life across the Atlantic, a fantasy of Eugene's she had previously dismissed.
Her own fantasy, less easily fulfilled, was that the move would stop her husband's adultery.
Surdez looked forward to living life to the full in the new world.
Perhaps he could be a racing driver?
Or a cowboy like Texas Jack?
The possibilities seemed endless.
But America had a few surprises in store.
Welcome To America Georges Surdez first saw the United States on 24 September 1912, a twelve-year-old boy hugging the rail of the SS Touraine as the New York skyline grew on the horizon.
Any enthusiasm Surdez felt for life in America was short lived.
The school system traumatised him.
His wages barely covered the rent on a small Westchester apartment.
Marie missed the open spaces and clean air of the Swiss valleys.
Her daughters wanted their freedom.
No-one had time to comfort young Georges in his unhappiness.
Alienated and alone he turned to his books for company and was drawn more than ever to the rootless heroes of the Foreign Legion.
In the early years of the twentieth century itinerant veterans were a common sight in France and Switzerland; some sold trinkets door-to-door to supplement their government pensions and most drank too much.
Back in Switzerland, one named Emile had told a young Surdez unsuitable stories about the realities of life in the Legion.
Emile described how his friend was shot in the jaw by pirates of the Black Flag during a fire fight on an Indochinese river and bled to death on a raft.
Surdez preferred the one about a feast thrown by legionnaires when their compound was threatened by Chinese guerrillas during the 1884-85 war for Tonkin province in north Vietnam.
The legionnaires caroused all night while in the centre of the feast an executioner decapitated Chinese visit web page />The next day the guerrillas awoke to the sight of heads swinging by their pigtails from every branch of every tree in the compound.
Brutality was common in an organisation which welcomed the dispossessed and desperate of every nationality into its ranks.
Created in 1831 as the spearhead of France's imperial "civilising mission" in North Africa the Legion quickly became the destination of choice for criminals on the run and the emotionally disturbed looking to forget their pasts.
The fiction Surdez read about the French Foreign Legion presented a more romantic picture.
Ouida's English novel 'Under Two Flags' was a best seller in the 1860s and its plot provided the blueprint for many Legion tales to come athletic English aristocrat Victor joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero while French writers like Roger de Beauvoir and Georges d'Esparbès explored similar territory the next century.
Surdez read and re-read the French language stories he had brought from Europe.
Then in 1914 he discovered a Foreign Legion tale in the American pulp magazine All-Story.
The plot owed a lot to Ouida athletic West Point graduate Max Doran joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero but it introduced Surdez to American pulps and changed his life.
Pulp History Spawned in 1896 when Frank Andrew Munsey transformed his ailing read article The Golden Argosy: Freighted With Treasures For Boys And Girls into plain Argosy, a home for adult adventure stories, the pulps were successors to the Dime novels Surdez had read in Switzerland.
Munsey discovered readers were more interested in racy stories than the budget paper stock he used to cut costs.
They did not care that the words blurred as ink spread through the Argosy's porous pages or the grey paper turned yellow in a month.
The stories were fast paced tales russian drinking roulette games cowboys, Indians, detectives, pilots, adventurers, soldiers, and the occasional French Foreign Legionnaire.
The covers were garish and eye catching: scantily clad blondes in danger, bi-planes locked in aerial combat, square jawed adventurers punching out foreign villains.
The pulps were home to the low rent end of the market.
Their small ads were filled with Charles Atlas body building courses, cures for bad breath or weak bladders, photographs of 'French models', and booklets promising the power of hypnosis over young women.
Mainstream culture looked down its nose at the pulps and blamed them for moral degeneracy amongst the young.
Educationalists complained that pulp readers, and sometimes writers, were only a short step ahead of illiteracy.
But publishers were prepared to put up with the griping for one good reason: they made a lot of money.
Some of it was even passed on to the writers who fed the industry's insatiable appetite for thrilling fiction.
Raymond Chandler, creator of gumshoe Philip Marlowe, learned his trade in the pulps.
The sheer number of pulp magazines was staggering.
In a typical week news stands groaned under the weight of Adventure, Argosy, Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Detective Story Magazine, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ghost Stories, Golden Fleece, and hundreds more.
Titles appeared and died like mayflies.
When sales fell, the publishers folded the title and started another.
Surdez devoured them all.
The expatriate Swiss left school at sixteen with a head full of pulp adventure but no qualifications.
His English had improved to native standard but this had not saved him from ostracism by fellow pupils.
His French language skills did help to get a job.
The world war was raging in Europe.
While millions of men, including his beloved Foreign Legionnaires, lived like troglodytes in trench systems cut through Belgium and France, Surdez worked as a clerk in the New Roulette show russian online game reality office of the French High Commission.
Surdez registered for the draft when America entered the war in 1917 brown hair, grey eyes, 5'6" but was not one of the 1.
With the war over he joined an American timber firm with interests in the Côte D'Ivoire.
In 1919 Surdez sailed for the French colony, a humid square of forest and plantations in west Africa.
His work in the Côte D'Ivoire was clerical and bored him so much he resigned to strike out as an independent trader.
On business trips to Morocco and French Just click for source history of russian roulette game met serving legionnaires and heard their stories.
He even considered joining up but, after seeing Legion life first-hand, realised he was not cut out for it.
Life in the colony was dangerous enough without a rifle in his hands.
Native bandits, Malaria, and Guinea Worm disease all threatened to give Surdez a grave plot in the African sun.
Profits were not high enough to justify the risks so the Swiss closed his trading business in 1920 and returned to New York.
He may have been telling the truth.
But for the next twenty-seven years, apart from a few trips abroad, he never left the country.
The pulps were to blame.
Dollar a Thousand Words Back in New York with experience of French imperial Africa but little else, Surdez took a clerking job while he decided his future.
The city was booming.
The financial district was a pin cushion of skyscrapers and Broadway a dazzling strip of electric light.
In the post-war prosperity, pulps were selling more than ever.
Surdez still liked reading pulp adventures and discovered that bigger magazines like Argosy and Adventure offered good money for fresh fiction.
His travels in Africa had been less exciting than those portrayed in the magazines - more paperwork and less gunfire - but he had the experiences to tell a good story.
Through 1921 and early 1922 Surdez spent his free time writing short stories in his Brooklyn apartment.
He worked in shirt sleeves during the summer as the kids outside played in the spray from broken fire hydrants.
In the winter he wrapped up in a sweater to pound the nickel keys of his typewriter while heating pipes complained through the apartment walls.
Pulp writing attracted a mixed bunch.
Well-oiled hacks used to turning out any story in any style if there was money at the end of it rubbed shoulders with genuine genre fans like Surdez, and oddballs like Albert Richard Wetjen who touch typed his stories in the dark.
Wetjen had begun his career writing without electricity in a one-room Salem shack and now his imagination only sparked with the lights off.
Observing from the sidelines with a cynical eye was a tough crew who had lived what they wrote.
Gordon MacCreagh explored Abyssinia with an expedition searching for the Ark of the Covenant.
Talbot Mundy had been a poacher and jailbird in India.
Best known was Borden Chase, who joined the pulps when his regular job as a driver for a Chicago bootlegger was terminated after Al Capone's gunmen mowed down his employer.
Writing about gangsters in New York seemed safer than living it for real.
The crime stuff came easy to me so that's what I did.
They paid a dollar a thousand words.
I once heard a story that Frank Munsey would evaluate the worth of a check this out by how heavy the manuscript felt in his hand, but that never happened to me!
His early works were a mix of popular pulp themes - battles in darkest Africa, tough detectives and crime thrillers.
Argosy accepted the stories Adventure turned down.
The Swiss was able to quit clerking when 'A Game In The Bush', an atypical romantic adventure, was bought by the New York-based Film Booking Offices of America FBO and in 1927 turned into the movie 'South Sea Love'.
The FBO was run by Joseph Kennedy, patriarch of a sprawling Boston Catholic family who would later guide his son John to the White House.
Made silent just as talkies came into fashion, its stars were second rate and director Ralph Ince well past his best.
He had already embarked on a literary path that would sustain him for the next fifteen years.
Sons of the Sword Surdez had experimented with French Foreign Legion fiction since the early days of his career.
But it was the publication of P C Wren's novel 'Beau Geste' the following year that created a market for all things legionary.
Beau Geste's plot was familiar to readers of Ouida aristocratic Englishman Michael 'Beau' Geste joins the Legion to escape social shame etc.
Englishman Wren never served in the Foreign Legion but had done his research and told a good yarn.
The Legion became all the rage.
Laurel and Hardy signed up in 'Beau Hunks', and even Mickey Mouse donned the kepi.
Pulp editors wanted a piece of legionary action and Surdez was well https://entermarket.ru/roulette/roulette-killer-system-download-free.html to exploit their hunger.
But he shared Hemingway's interest in the psychology of men of action.
Surdez's legionnaires were not Ouida-like aristocrats joining up to escape their pasts, but professional soldiers plagued by moral weakness and doubt in a foreign land.
His work sold well Adventure alone took over 100 stories in the twenties but Surdez never made it into the top tier of pulp writers whose name on the cover sent a magazine flying off the new stands.
He was too sparing with the blood and guts.
His 1927 novel 'Demon Caravan' avoids action for a well-observed power struggle between moderate and conservative Muslims in a remote kingdom.
Readers were left with the sneaking suspicion Surdez regarded himself as a serious writer.
He tried to cover himself with exotic settings, dark-eyed native girls and occasional gratuitous titillation.
Good money could be made in the pulps, but writers had to work hard for it.
Bedford-Jones 'King of the Pulps' was living proof a man could even get rich behind a typewriter.
With at least four stories always on the go, so if inspiration dried up on one he switched to another, Bedford-Jones could write 25,000 words a day to meet an emergency deadline and regarded less than 6,000 before bedtime on an ordinary day as laziness.
A friend rang his home to be told by Bedford-Jones' wife that her husband was hard at work on a novel.
Surdez was not as prolific as Bedford-Jones no-one was but he churned out enough short stories for the hungry maw of the pulp industry to ensure a healthy bank balance.
Along with a fat cheque from Joe Kennedy for 'South Sea Love', the pulp money made him abandon any lingering thoughts of leaving for Africa or Switzerland.
In 1928 he became a naturalised American citizen, encouraged by his wife Edith McKenna, an older schoolteacher he had married in 1922.
She wanted him to put down roots.
But despite assurances to Edith, psychologically Surdez remained with one foot in America and the other in Europe.
America was the nation which link and divided his family and he never quite trusted it.
The year after his citizenship was granted Surdez took his wife on a long tour of the French colonies in Africa and the Far East, where he squeezed more stories out of any legionnaires he met.
The couple left an America that was confident and prosperous.
When they returned in 1930 the economy was in ruins.
Russian Roulette While the Surdezs were away, share prices tumbled on the New York stock exchange.
Panic selling followed and, within weeks of the crash on Wall Street, economic disaster surged like a tsunami over the nation's financial markets.
Businesses went under and banks closed.
Unemployment and hardship succeeded the boom time of the twenties.
Freelancers in the pulp world heard the wolf howling at the door louder than most.
In 1929 Surdez could submit work to seventy-three pulp magazines.
Three years later that number had dwindled to thirty-five and rates of pay to less than half a cent a word.
Many pulpsters stopped writing and took what jobs they could to get by.
Surdez refused to quit.
He defiantly gave his profession as 'magazine writer' in the 1930 census and boasted he was known abroad - 'They March From Yesterday', a collection of Legion tales, had been published in Britain, and his stories were bootlegged for Seikkailujen Maailma, a Finnish pulp magazine with a relaxed attitude to copyright.
Adventure and Argosy continued to run Surdez's Legion stories but he had to look outside the pulp world to pay the rent.
Collier's Illustrated Weekly was a popular mainstream magazine which made its reputation pioneering socially-concerned photojournalism in the early years of the century.
In the 1920s it went middle-brow after discovering readers preferred serialised novels to exposés of the child labour laws.
The Wall Street Crash knocked it down a peg.
Advertising revenue during the 1930s was never more than half its pre-Crash level.
Surdez wanted to get on board.
The magazine's mid-thirties incarnation was an easy-reading mixture of aspirational articles on subjects like big game fishing or business success, the occasional painted pin-up, and crowd pleasing fiction, often just as escapist as anything in Adventure.
Surdez polished his prose and sent in his work.
Surdez was a cut above his fellow pulp hacks his characters had at least two dimensionsbut he would have disappeared from the cultural memory like Bedford-Jones and Borden Chase if it had not been for a short story in Collier's that continued to send out history of russian roulette game across the years long after the stone had been thrown.
On 30 January 1937 have best way to win casino roulette sorry 1,600-word piece of fiction by Surdez called 'Russian Roulette' appeared in the magazine.
A briskly told tale of adventure, gambling, and death amongst Foreign Legionnaires in an isolated North African outpost, the story christened and popularised the game that would kill more than a thousand Americans.
With lost carbons, missing letters, and apartment moves, Surdez did not leave many papers behind and the few he did do not explain where he got the name for Russian Roulette.
The suicidal gun game had been around since at least 1920, as adventurers in Russia during the civil war had testified, but Surdez was the first to use the name in print.
It may have been floating around unrecorded before Surdez nailed it to the page.
The odds are that the Swiss came up with it himself.
It was the kind of tough guy gambling-with-death approach that years of working in the Pulps gave you.
The story takes the form of a letter from Hugo Feldheim, a young German recruit, to his superior officer asking for advice on how to cover up the suicide of a Russian comrade.
Sergeant Burkowski is a compulsive gambler who regularly fleeces his comrades in games of chance.
When they cut their losses and refuse to play he becomes depressed.
In conversation with Feldheim he asks whether the German has heard of 'Russian Roulette'.
It was practiced, says Burkowski, in Romania during 1917, the last days of the Russian participation in the World War when the Tsar's demoralised army was on the retreat.
There were five chances to one that the hammer would set off with roulette casino live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
Sometimes it happened, sometimes not.
The hammer falls on an empty chamber and the Russian is invigorated.
He continues to play Russian Roulette in this way for several weeks.
Burkowski still likes to gamble and challenges Feldheim to a variant of the game.
He will remove all but one of the bullets from the revolver, spin the cylinder and see if he can avoid death.
Feldheim tries to argue him out of it but is pushed into making a bet.
The Russian lives and Feldheim loses a month's wages.
Later that night a contrite Burkowski visits him to return the money.
He cheated, he very free roulette spins no deposit consider, as he knew where the bullet was in the history of russian roulette game />Feldheim refuses to accept the money and later that night the Russian shoots himself.
I wondered whether he had tried the bet all over again, privately.
But when I examined the weapon, I discovered that all the chambers were loaded.
I hope the Lieutenant can tell me how to arrange this story so that it may satisfy the authorities.
It is not quite clear to me whether it would be right to reveal that he had shot himself for cheating.
On the other hand, have I the right to falsify an official report?
Eight months later a young man called Thomas H Markley jnr shot himself dead on his twenty-first birthday in Austin, Texas.
His was the first Russian Roulette death in America.
And something scurried in.
Motive and Memory Georges Arthur Surdez died on 5 November 1949 in Brooklyn.
His last ten years had been tough.
The pulps picked up in the late thirties and for a few years Surdez was able to place a decent amount of work with them.
Then in 1941 the war reached America.
Japanese Zero fighters dived out of a clear blue afternoon sky and atacked Pearl Harbour, the Hawaiian naval base.
Four days later Nazi Germany declared war on America.
He could have done with the regular army pay check.
His Foreign Legion stories had recently become about as popular as fresh shrapnel and money was becoming a problem.
In June 1940 Nazi Germany had overrun France.
A New Order was established.
Legionnaires found themselves having to choose between the collaborationist French government at Vichy, far-right extremists in Paris, and casino with roulette in northern california resistance movement hiding weapons in every attic.
That kind of complex situation did not translate well into magazines across the Atlantic.
Surdez managed to place a few more stories with the pulps, all set before the war, but the pulps soon made it clear they wanted nothing to do with the Foreign Legion.
His new stories were about the French resistance.
Contemporary war stories were money makers.
Too much competition and not enough magazines.
The pulp market plunged down again during the war due to a shortage of paper and, crucially, metal for staples.
Surdez spread his talent thinly over a number of different publications but times were hard.
His marriage collapsed in 1943 when Edith moved out to live with another man.
Surdez consoled himself with an autobiographical novel of his childhood, his first conventional mainstream writing venture.
When it came out in 1945 reviews were respectful, but sales low.
Surdez went back to the surviving pulps and managed to keep a roof above his head until death came knocking four years later.
The only publication to record his passing was the Wilson Library Gazette, a publication for librarians to keep their card indexes up to date.
There are lots of unanswered questions about 'Russian Roulette', not least why Surdez thought it was more dangerous to play it with one bullet than five, but the one that screams loudest for an answer is why the Swiss did not step forward during his lifetime to take credit for inventing, or at least popularising, the practice.
By the time of his death Russian Roulette was an established part of American popular culture.
If he missed those he might have read the New York Times 17 February 1949 story about Phillip Fernette.
Or the 21 September 1947 story about two teenage boys who shot a girl dead by playing Russian Roulette with the gun pointing at her chest.
Maybe he simply missed the signs that his story had slid off the printed page and into real life.
Writers, especially those hacking out stories daily when not cursing their ex-wives, can be an insular mob.
Or perhaps the public arena was not for him.
Hints exist, bat squeaks of suspicion among the historical background noise, that Surdez could have had political reasons for wishing to stay out of the post-WWII spotlight.
Surdez may have followed him down that road.
Surdez have skated over the worst aspects of legionary life - 'stories of atrocities in the Legion, or by the Legion, hand me a laugh' — but he always portrayed Black and Arab characters sympathetically.
You steal the desert away from the Arabs and you have taken land from the black people.
There is only one difference between you and me.
I steal for myself.
Not much in the way of evidence but, combined with the fact that in the early 1930s the French Sûreté in Africa intercepted letters to Surdez from black independence activist Amadou Sall, the alarm bells ring a little louder.
Sall was a political nationalist from Senegal who had lived in New York until the government deported him in 1931.
He was active on behalf of the United Click Improvement Association Marcus Garvey's UNIA.
By the time Surdez's pen friend wrote to him, the UNIA was sinking.
Flamboyant founder Marcus Garvey had been kicked out.
But it still remained a formidable organisation committed to racial equality and anti-colonialism, ideals it was prepared to back up with armed paramilitaries like the African Legion.
The FBI monitored it.
European powers in Africa kept a wary eye on the situation.
The letters from Sall may have been entirely innocent or they could be an indication Surdez was more radical in his opinions than his French Foreign Legion stories indicated.
Frost was growing on the cold war by the late 1940s.
Twenty-two Russian Roulette players died in America the year Surdez passed away.
Like a watch ticking on the wrist of a corpse, the practice he introduced to America lived on.
For the record, Surdez worked in the Powder Bureau of the French High Commission during World War One.
The Amadou Sall letters are, briefly, mentioned in 'The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans, 1923-1945' University here California Press, 2006 H.
Russian roulette deaths reported in Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, and Nevada State Journal.
Behind The Scenes This is a version of a sample chapter I wrote for a projected book on the history of Russian Roulette.
I started the research after finishing the Spanish version ofgot derailed a few months later by having to rewrite Franco for the English language version, then got back on track in 2009.
It stayed that way after the problems were mopped up because I discovered a new obsession with of the 1960s.
Will Christopher Othen's history of Russian Roulette still get written?
Write to your MP.
Recommended Articles For You One hundred years of bankrupt British aristocrats, corrupt golden youths, and frankly untrustworthy remittance men.
Ideal reading for social-climbing sociopaths.
All website material © Christopher Othen 2009-2014.

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Russian Roulette (game show) - Wikipedia
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Find sources: — · · · · December 2017 Russian Roulette Created by Gunnar Wetterberg Presented by Narrated https://entermarket.ru/roulette/casino-tactics-roulette.html Country of origin United States No.
The show was hosted by and announced by.
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Some may also have a maximum time limit of 15 seconds instead of 10 to answer questions.
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The Chinese version is broadcast live on weekdays, and runs for 65 minutes including commercials.
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The Man who Invented Russian Roulette - The Forgotten Life of Georges Surdez ARTICLE Bright Review
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The suicidal gun game of Russian Roulette originated in Tsarist Russia but remained nameless until it hit America just before the Second World War.
Its gambling moniker was the invention of Georges Arthur Surdez, a Swiss-born and Brooklyn-based writer of pulp fiction stories.
After you've read this check out my new blog for all kinds of cultural and military weirdness.
The Man Who Invented Russian Roulette The Forgotten Life of Georges Arthur Surdez 1900-49 Scattered farm houses with roofs the colour of dark chocolate cling to sloping daffodil meadows at the foot of the Jura mountains.
Cows amble through pastures with clanking brass bells around their necks.
Pure picture postcard to outsiders, this tranquil part of Switzerland is home to a town German-speakers know as Biel but francophones prefer to call Bienne.
Georges Arthur Surdez was born here in 1900 to a French-speaking middle class family with its fair share of demons.
The arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century changed Bienne from history of russian roulette game rustic backwater to a bustling town.
Its watchmakers seized the opportunity to transform their industry.
The days of craftsmen working alone in cottage game russian ukulele roulette revolver drinking rooms were gone.
Surdez shared the family home with an elder brother and three elder sisters.
An adult brother and sister were making new lives for themselves in America.
They had been gone so long that the smart toys they sent Surdez at Christmas stirred no memories.
His father Eugene was a watchmaker, and mother Marie happy to devote her life to her children.
Like many outwardly respectable families, a maggot wriggled inside the apple.
That was putting it mildly.
Eugene Surdez's obsessive adultery was the most public display of his dissatisfaction with his life.
He was dissatisfied with the love of his wife.
He was dissatisfied with his job as a watchmaker.
Most of all he was dissatisfied living in Bienne while his two eldest children prospered in the United States.
As a young man, Eugene lived in New York for four years and remained awed by his memories of the city.
He never forgot the sight of a giant stone arm displayed in Madison Square as the Statue of Liberty arrived from France piece by piece.
After problems with his job, he returned to Switzerland in 1882 and spent the next thirty years regretting the move.
The regret oozed out in drink and adultery.
It poisoned his marriage.
Surdez was only a few years old when his father pulled the first of what would be many disappearing acts.
Eugene abandoned work and home for several weeks, then reappeared to announce he had found another job in a distant town.
The family had no choice but to follow him.
More moves occurred over the next decade, triggered by Eugene's pursuit of a new mistress or a drunken brawl that attracted the attention of the police.
The family eventually moved across the border to a series of French towns, rented rooms, history of russian roulette game temporary friends.
The uprootings did not bother Surdez, who decided at a young age he liked travel.
At the age of three the little Swiss boy smuggled himself aboard a delivery cart outside the family lodgings at the Auberge du Cerf Inn and was taken on a ride through the green valleys of the Jura before the driver returned him to his frantic parents.
Surdez was a bright child whose reading covered Swiss history, William Tell, the life of Napoleon, stories of the French Foreign Legion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, and translations of American Dime novels, which were pocket-sized adventure stories full of heroes, villains, and gunfights.
A favourite was Texas Jack who battled Red Indians in the Wild West.
His elder brother Gilbert died falling from a tree.
Not long after sister Blanche was killed in a sleigh accident.
The birth of a boy in 1907, also named Gilbert, brought Eugene and Marie back together for a while but Surdez's father could not stop chasing other women for long.
The family struggled on for five more years until Surdez's now adult sisters, inspired by their father's tales of New York, announced they intended to emigrate to America.
Perhaps Marie believed the break up of the family would have been last rites for her marriage.
To everyone's surprise she suggested they all start a new life across the Atlantic, a fantasy of Eugene's she had previously dismissed.
Her own fantasy, less easily fulfilled, was that the move would stop her husband's adultery.
Surdez looked forward to living life to the full in the new world.
Perhaps he could be a racing driver?
Or a cowboy like Texas Jack?
The possibilities seemed endless.
But America had a few surprises in store.
Welcome To America Georges Surdez first saw the United States on 24 September 1912, a twelve-year-old boy hugging the rail of the SS Touraine as the New York skyline grew on the horizon.
Any enthusiasm Surdez felt for life in America was short lived.
The school system traumatised him.
His wages barely covered the rent on a small Westchester apartment.
Marie missed the open spaces and clean air of the Swiss valleys.
Her daughters wanted their freedom.
No-one had time to comfort young Georges in his unhappiness.
Alienated and alone he turned to his books for company and was drawn more than ever to the rootless heroes of the Foreign Legion.
In the early link of the twentieth century itinerant veterans were a common sight in France and Switzerland; some sold trinkets door-to-door to supplement their government pensions and most drank too much.
link in Switzerland, one named Emile had told a young Surdez unsuitable stories about the realities of life in the Legion.
Emile described how his friend was shot in the jaw by pirates of the Black Flag during a fire fight on an Indochinese river and bled to death on a raft.
Surdez preferred the best casino vegas about a feast thrown by legionnaires when their compound was threatened by Chinese guerrillas during the 1884-85 war for Tonkin province in north Vietnam.
The legionnaires caroused all night while in the centre of the feast an executioner decapitated Chinese prisoners.
The next day the guerrillas awoke to the sight of heads swinging by their pigtails from every branch of every tree in the compound.
Brutality was common in an organisation which welcomed the dispossessed and desperate of every nationality into its ranks.
Created in 1831 as the spearhead of France's imperial "civilising mission" in North Africa the Legion quickly became the destination of choice for criminals on the run and the emotionally disturbed looking to forget their pasts.
The fiction Surdez read about the French Foreign Legion presented a more romantic picture.
Ouida's English novel 'Under Two Flags' was a best seller in the 1860s and its plot provided the blueprint for many Legion tales to come athletic English aristocrat Victor joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero while French writers like Roger de Beauvoir and Georges d'Esparbès explored similar territory the next century.
Surdez read and re-read the French language stories he had brought from Europe.
Then history of russian roulette game 1914 he discovered a Foreign Legion tale in the American pulp magazine All-Story.
The plot owed a lot to Ouida athletic West Point graduate Max Doran joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero but it introduced Surdez to American pulps and changed his life.
Pulp History Spawned in 1896 when Frank Andrew Munsey transformed his ailing magazine The Golden Argosy: Freighted With Treasures For Boys And Girls into plain Argosy, a history of russian roulette game for adult adventure stories, the pulps were successors to the Dime novels Surdez had read in Switzerland.
Munsey discovered readers were more interested in racy stories than the budget paper stock he used to cut costs.
They did not care that the words blurred as ink spread through the Argosy's porous pages or the grey paper turned yellow in a month.
The stories were fast paced tales of cowboys, Indians, detectives, pilots, adventurers, soldiers, and the occasional French Foreign Legionnaire.
The covers were garish and eye catching: scantily clad blondes in danger, bi-planes locked in aerial combat, square jawed adventurers punching out foreign villains.
The pulps were home to the low rent end of the market.
Their small ads were filled with Charles Atlas body building courses, cures for bad breath or weak bladders, photographs of 'French models', and booklets promising the power of hypnosis over young women.
Mainstream culture looked down its nose at the pulps and blamed them for moral degeneracy amongst the young.
Educationalists complained that pulp readers, and sometimes writers, were only a short step ahead of illiteracy.
But publishers were prepared to put up with the griping for one good reason: they made a lot of money.
Some of it was even history of russian roulette game on to the writers who fed the industry's insatiable appetite for thrilling fiction.
Raymond Chandler, creator of gumshoe Philip Marlowe, learned his trade in the pulps.
The sheer number of pulp magazines was staggering.
In a typical week news stands groaned under the weight of Adventure, Argosy, Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Detective Story Magazine, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ghost Stories, Golden Fleece, and hundreds more.
Titles appeared and died like mayflies.
When sales fell, the publishers folded the title and started another.
Surdez devoured them all.
The expatriate Swiss left school at sixteen with a head full of pulp adventure but no qualifications.
His English had improved to native standard but this had not saved him from ostracism by fellow pupils.
His French language skills did help to get a job.
The world war was raging in Europe.
While millions of men, including his beloved Foreign Legionnaires, lived like troglodytes in trench systems cut through Belgium and France, Surdez worked as a clerk in the New York office of the French High Commission.
Surdez registered for the draft when America entered the war in 1917 brown hair, grey eyes, 5'6" but was not one of the 1.
With the war over he joined an American timber firm with interests in the Côte D'Ivoire.
In 1919 Surdez sailed for the French colony, a humid square of forest and plantations in west Africa.
His work in the Côte D'Ivoire was clerical and bored him so much he resigned to strike out as an independent trader.
On business trips to Morocco and French Soudan he met serving legionnaires and heard their stories.
He even considered joining up but, after seeing Legion life first-hand, realised he was not cut out for it.
Life in the history of russian roulette game was dangerous enough without a rifle in his hands.
Native bandits, Malaria, and Guinea Worm disease all threatened to give Surdez a grave plot in the African sun.
Profits were not high enough to justify the risks so the Swiss closed his trading business in 1920 and returned to New York.
He may have been telling the truth.
But for the next twenty-seven years, apart from a few trips abroad, he never left the country.
The pulps were to blame.
Dollar a Thousand Words Back in New York with experience of French imperial Africa but little else, Surdez took a clerking job while he decided his future.
The city was booming.
The financial district was a pin cushion of skyscrapers and Broadway a dazzling strip of electric light.
In the post-war prosperity, pulps were selling more than ever.
Surdez still liked reading pulp adventures and discovered that bigger magazines like Argosy and Adventure offered good money for fresh fiction.
His travels in Africa had been less exciting than those portrayed in the magazines - more paperwork and less gunfire - but he had the experiences to tell a good story.
Through 1921 and early 1922 Surdez spent his free time writing short stories in his Brooklyn apartment.
He worked in shirt sleeves during the summer as the kids outside played in the spray from broken fire hydrants.
In the winter he wrapped up in a sweater to pound the nickel keys of his typewriter while heating pipes complained through the apartment walls.
Pulp writing attracted a mixed bunch.
Well-oiled hacks used to turning out any story in any style if there was money at the end of it rubbed shoulders with genuine genre fans like Surdez, and oddballs like Albert Richard Wetjen who touch typed his stories in the dark.
Wetjen had begun his career writing without electricity in a one-room Salem shack remarkable, mini roulette game online can now his imagination only sparked with the lights off.
Observing from the sidelines with a cynical eye was a tough crew who had lived what they wrote.
Gordon MacCreagh explored Abyssinia with an expedition searching for the Ark of the Covenant.
Talbot Mundy had been a poacher and jailbird in India.
Best known was Borden Chase, who joined the pulps when his regular job as a driver for a Chicago bootlegger was terminated after Al Capone's gunmen mowed down his employer.
Writing about gangsters in New York seemed safer than living it for real.
The crime stuff came easy to me so that's what I did.
They paid a dollar a thousand words.
I once heard a story that Frank Munsey would evaluate the worth of a story by how heavy the manuscript felt in his hand, but that never happened to me!
His early works were a mix of popular pulp themes - battles in darkest Africa, tough detectives and crime thrillers.
Argosy accepted the stories Adventure turned down.
The Swiss was able to quit clerking when 'A Game In The Bush', an atypical romantic adventure, was bought by the New York-based Film Booking Offices of America FBO and in 1927 turned into the movie 'South Sea Love'.
The FBO was run by Joseph Kennedy, patriarch of a sprawling Boston Catholic family who would later guide his son John to the White House.
Made silent just as talkies came into fashion, its stars were second rate and director Ralph Ince well past his best.
He had already embarked on a literary path that would sustain him for the next fifteen years.
Sons of the Sword Surdez had experimented with French Foreign Legion fiction since the early days of his career.
But it was the publication of P C Wren's novel 'Beau Geste' the following year that created a market for all things legionary.
Beau Geste's plot was familiar to readers of Ouida aristocratic Englishman Michael 'Beau' Geste joins the Legion to escape social shame etc.
Englishman Wren never served in the Foreign Legion but had done his research and told a good yarn.
The Legion became all the rage.
Laurel and Hardy signed up in 'Beau Hunks', and even Mickey Mouse donned the kepi.
Pulp editors wanted a piece of legionary action and Surdez was well placed to exploit their hunger.
But he shared Hemingway's interest in the psychology of men of action.
Surdez's legionnaires were not Ouida-like aristocrats joining up to escape their pasts, but professional soldiers plagued by moral weakness and doubt in a foreign land.
His work sold well Adventure alone took over 100 stories in the twenties but Surdez never made it into the top tier of pulp writers whose name on the cover sent a magazine flying off the new stands.
He was too sparing with the blood and guts.
His 1927 novel 'Demon Caravan' avoids action for a well-observed power struggle between moderate and conservative Muslims in a remote kingdom.
Readers were left with the sneaking suspicion Surdez regarded himself as a serious writer.
He tried to cover himself with exotic settings, dark-eyed native girls and occasional gratuitous titillation.
Good money could be made in the pulps, but writers had to work hard for it.
Bedford-Jones 'King of the Pulps' was living proof a man could even get rich behind a typewriter.
With more info least four stories always on the go, so if inspiration dried up on one he switched to another, Bedford-Jones could write 25,000 words a day to meet an emergency deadline and regarded less than 6,000 before bedtime on an ordinary day as laziness.
A friend rang his home to be told by Bedford-Jones' wife that her husband was hard at work on a novel.
Surdez was not as prolific as Bedford-Jones no-one was but he churned out enough short stories for the hungry maw of the pulp industry to ensure a healthy bank balance.
Along with a fat cheque from Joe Kennedy for 'South Sea Love', the pulp money made him abandon any lingering thoughts of leaving for Africa or Switzerland.
In 1928 he became a naturalised American citizen, encouraged by his wife Edith McKenna, an older schoolteacher he had married in 1922.
She wanted him to put down roots.
But despite assurances to Edith, psychologically Surdez remained with one foot in America and the other in Europe.
America was the nation which bewildered and divided his family and he never quite trusted it.
The year after his citizenship was granted Surdez took his wife on a long tour of the French colonies in Africa and the Far East, where he squeezed more stories out of any legionnaires he met.
The couple left an America that was confident and prosperous.
When they returned in 1930 the economy was in ruins.
Russian Roulette While the Surdezs were away, share prices history of russian roulette game on the New York stock exchange.
Panic selling followed and, within weeks of the crash on Wall Street, economic disaster surged like a tsunami over the nation's financial markets.
Businesses went under and banks closed.
Unemployment and hardship succeeded the boom time of the twenties.
Freelancers in the pulp world heard the wolf howling at the door louder than most.
In 1929 Surdez could submit work to seventy-three pulp magazines.
Three years later that number had dwindled to thirty-five and rates of pay to less than half a cent a word.
Many pulpsters stopped writing and took what jobs they could to get by.
Surdez refused to quit.
He defiantly gave his profession as 'magazine writer' in the 1930 census and boasted he was known abroad - 'They March From Yesterday', a collection of Legion tales, had been published in Britain, and his stories were bootlegged for Seikkailujen Maailma, a Finnish pulp magazine with a relaxed attitude to copyright.
Adventure and Argosy continued to run Surdez's Legion stories but he had to look outside the pulp world to pay the rent.
Collier's Illustrated Weekly was a popular mainstream magazine which made its reputation pioneering socially-concerned photojournalism in the early years of the century.
In the 1920s it went middle-brow after discovering readers preferred serialised novels to exposés of the child labour laws.
The Wall Street Crash knocked it down a peg.
Advertising revenue during the 1930s was never more than half its pre-Crash level.
Surdez wanted to get on board.
The magazine's mid-thirties incarnation was an easy-reading mixture of aspirational articles on subjects like big game fishing or business success, the occasional painted pin-up, and crowd pleasing fiction, often just as escapist as anything in Adventure.
Surdez polished his prose and sent in his work.
Surdez was a cut above his fellow pulp hacks his characters had at least two dimensionsbut he would have disappeared from the cultural memory like Bedford-Jones and Borden Chase if it had not been for a short story in Collier's that continued to send out ripples across the years long after the stone had been thrown.
On 30 January 1937 a 1,600-word piece of fiction by Surdez called 'Russian Roulette' appeared in the magazine.
A briskly told tale of adventure, gambling, and death amongst Foreign Legionnaires in an isolated North African outpost, the story christened and popularised the game that would kill more than a thousand Americans.
With lost carbons, missing letters, and apartment moves, Surdez did not leave many papers behind and the few he did do not explain where he got the name for Russian Roulette.
The suicidal gun game had been around since at least 1920, as adventurers in Russia during the civil war had testified, but Surdez was the first to use the name in print.
It may have been floating around unrecorded before Surdez nailed it to the page.
The odds are that the Swiss came up with it himself.
It was the kind of tough guy gambling-with-death approach that years of working in the Pulps gave you.
The story takes the form of a letter from Hugo Feldheim, a young German recruit, to his superior officer asking for advice on how to cover up the suicide of a Russian comrade.
Sergeant Burkowski is a compulsive gambler who regularly fleeces his comrades in games of chance.
When they cut their losses and refuse to play he becomes depressed.
In conversation with Feldheim he asks whether the German has heard of 'Russian Roulette'.
It was practiced, says Burkowski, in Romania during 1917, the last days of the Russian participation in the World War when the Tsar's demoralised army was on the retreat.
There were five chances to one that the hammer would set off a live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
Sometimes it happened, sometimes not.
The hammer falls on an empty chamber and the Russian is invigorated.
He continues to play Russian Roulette in this way for several weeks.
Burkowski still likes to gamble and challenges Feldheim to a variant of the game.
He will remove all but one of the bullets from the revolver, spin the cylinder and see if he can avoid death.
Feldheim tries to argue him out of it but is pushed into making a bet.
The Russian lives and Feldheim loses a month's wages.
Later that night a contrite Burkowski visits him to return the money.
He cheated, he explains, as he knew where the bullet was in the cylinder.
Feldheim refuses to accept the money and later that night the Russian shoots himself.
I wondered whether he had tried the bet all over again, privately.
But when I examined the weapon, I discovered that all the chambers were loaded.
I hope the Lieutenant can tell me how to arrange this story so that it may satisfy the authorities.
It is not quite clear to me whether it would be right to reveal that he had shot himself for cheating.
On the other link, have I the right to falsify an official report?
Eight months later a young man called Thomas H Markley jnr shot himself dead read more his twenty-first birthday in Austin, Texas.
His was the first Russian Roulette death in America.
And something scurried in.
Motive and Memory Georges Arthur Surdez died on 5 November 1949 in Brooklyn.
His last ten years had been tough.
The pulps picked up in the late thirties and for a few years Surdez was able to place a decent amount of work with them.
Then in 1941 the war reached America.
Japanese Zero fighters dived out of a clear blue afternoon sky and atacked Pearl Harbour, the Hawaiian naval base.
Four days later Nazi Germany declared war on America.
He could have done with the regular army pay check.
His Foreign Legion stories had recently become about as popular as fresh shrapnel and money was becoming a problem.
In June 1940 Nazi Germany had overrun France.
A New Order real casinos roulette live established.
Legionnaires found themselves having to choose between the collaborationist French government at Vichy, far-right extremists in Paris, and a resistance movement hiding weapons in every attic.
That kind of complex situation did not translate well into magazines across the Atlantic.
Surdez managed to place a few more stories with the pulps, all set before the war, but the pulps soon made it clear they wanted nothing to do with the Foreign Legion.
His new stories were about the French resistance.
Contemporary war stories were money makers.
Too much competition and not enough magazines.
The pulp market plunged down again during the war due to a shortage of paper and, crucially, metal for staples.
Surdez spread his talent thinly over a number of different publications but times were hard.
His marriage collapsed in 1943 when Edith moved out to live with another man.
Surdez consoled himself with an autobiographical novel of his childhood, his first conventional mainstream writing venture.
When it came out in 1945 reviews were respectful, but sales low.
Surdez went back to the surviving pulps and managed to keep a roof above his head until death came knocking four years later.
The only publication to record his passing was the Wilson Library Gazette, a publication for librarians to keep their card indexes up to date.
There are lots of unanswered questions about 'Russian Roulette', not least why Surdez thought it was more dangerous to play it with one bullet than five, but the one that screams loudest for an answer is why the Swiss did not step forward during his lifetime to take credit for inventing, or at least popularising, the practice.
By the time of his death Russian Roulette was an established part of American popular culture.
If he missed those he might have read the New York Times 17 February 1949 story about Phillip Fernette.
Or the 21 September 1947 story about two teenage boys who shot a girl dead by playing Russian Roulette with the gun pointing at her chest.
Maybe he simply missed the signs that his story had slid off the printed page and into real life.
Writers, especially those hacking out stories daily when not cursing their ex-wives, can be an insular mob.
Or perhaps the public arena was not for him.
Hints exist, bat squeaks of suspicion among the historical background noise, that Surdez could have had political reasons for wishing to stay out of the post-WWII spotlight.
Surdez may have followed him down that road.
Surdez have skated over the worst aspects of legionary life - 'stories of atrocities in the Legion, or by the Legion, hand me a laugh' — but he always portrayed Black and Arab characters sympathetically.
You steal the desert away from the Arabs and you have taken land from the black people.
There is only one difference between you and me.
I steal for myself.
Not much in the way of evidence but, combined with the fact that in the early please click for source the French Sûreté in Africa intercepted letters to Surdez from black independence activist Amadou Sall, the alarm bells ring a little louder.
Sall was a political nationalist from Senegal who had lived in New York until the government deported him in 1931.
He was active on behalf of the United Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey's UNIA.
By the time Surdez's pen friend wrote to him, the UNIA was sinking.
Flamboyant founder Marcus Garvey had been kicked out.
But it still remained a formidable organisation committed to racial equality and anti-colonialism, ideals it was prepared to back up with armed paramilitaries like the African Legion.
The FBI monitored it.
European powers in Africa kept a wary eye on the situation.
The letters from Sall may have been entirely innocent or they could be an indication Surdez was more radical in his opinions than his French Foreign Legion stories indicated.
Frost was growing on the cold war by the late 1940s.
Twenty-two Russian Roulette players died in America the know, ladbrokes free bet roulette good Surdez passed away.
Like a watch ticking on the wrist of a with roulette, the practice he introduced to America lived on.
For the record, Surdez worked in the Powder Bureau of the French High Commission during World War One.
The Amadou Sall letters are, briefly, mentioned in 'The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans, 1923-1945' University of California Press, 2006 H.
Russian roulette deaths reported in Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, and Nevada State Journal.
Behind The Scenes This is a version of a sample chapter I wrote for a projected book on the history of Russian Roulette.
I started the research after finishing the Spanish version ofgot derailed a few months later by having to rewrite Franco for the English language version, then got back on track in 2009.
It stayed that way after the problems were mopped up because I discovered a new obsession with of the 1960s.
Will Christopher Othen's history of Russian Roulette still get written?
Write to your MP.
Recommended Articles For You One hundred years of bankrupt British aristocrats, corrupt golden youths, and frankly untrustworthy remittance men.
Ideal reading for social-climbing sociopaths.
All website material © Christopher Othen 2009-2014.

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Early 1800s during Lermontov time the Roulette appeared among officers on Caucasus (note that Lermontov describes the game, but never actually calls it Russian Roulette), late in 1870s it is well known, has its official name "the Roulette" and is popular enough to requite special actions from Emperor and generals to stop its spread among officers.


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After this the $100,000 Russian Roulette was rigged to make sure that the red light would land on the player. Inventor Edit. Idea by Gunnar Wetterberg Videos (Episodes) Edit Here are some episodes of the US version of Russian Roulette:


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Russian Roulette (game show) - Wikipedia
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Russian roulette (Russian: Русская рулетка, Russkaya ruletka) is a potentially lethal game of chance in which participants place a single round in a revolver, spin the cylinder, place the muzzle against their head and pull the trigger.


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In today’s world, the game of Russian roulette is generally considered to be a metaphor for taking crazy chances: a “game” in which one is almost guaranteed to eventually face disastrous results. But Russian roulette has a very real history, and has been played on numerous occasions throughout the world.


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The suicidal gun game of Russian Roulette originated in Tsarist Russia but remained nameless until it hit America just before the Second World War.
Its gambling moniker was the invention of Georges Arthur Surdez, a Swiss-born and Brooklyn-based writer of pulp fiction stories.
After you've read this check out my new blog for all kinds of cultural and military weirdness.
The Man Who Invented Russian Roulette The Forgotten Life of Georges Arthur Surdez 1900-49 Scattered farm houses with roofs the colour of dark chocolate cling to sloping daffodil meadows at the foot of the Jura mountains.
Cows amble through pastures with clanking brass bells around their necks.
Pure picture postcard to outsiders, this tranquil part of Switzerland is home to a town German-speakers know as Biel but francophones prefer to call Bienne.
Georges Arthur Surdez was born here in 1900 to a French-speaking middle class family with its fair share of demons.
The arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century changed Bienne from a rustic backwater to a bustling town.
Its watchmakers seized the opportunity to transform their industry.
The days of craftsmen working alone in cottage back rooms were gone.
Surdez shared the family home with an elder brother and three elder sisters.
An adult brother and sister were making new lives for themselves in America.
They had been gone so long that the smart toys they sent Surdez at Christmas stirred no memories.
His father Eugene was a watchmaker, and mother Marie happy to devote her life to her children.
Like many outwardly respectable families, a maggot wriggled inside the apple.
That was putting it mildly.
Eugene Surdez's obsessive adultery was the most public display of his dissatisfaction with his life.
He was dissatisfied with the love of his wife.
He was dissatisfied with his job as a watchmaker.
Most of all he was dissatisfied living in Bienne while his two eldest children prospered in the United States.
As a young man, Eugene lived in New York for four years and remained awed by his memories of the city.
He never forgot the sight of a giant stone arm displayed in Madison Square as the Statue of Liberty arrived from France piece by piece.
After problems with his job, he returned to Switzerland in 1882 and spent the next thirty years regretting the move.
The regret oozed out in drink and adultery.
It poisoned his marriage.
Surdez was only a few years old when his father pulled the first of what would be many disappearing acts.
Eugene abandoned work and home for several weeks, then reappeared to announce he had found another job in a distant town.
The family had no choice continue reading to follow him.
More moves occurred over the next decade, triggered by Eugene's pursuit of a new mistress or a drunken brawl that attracted the attention of the police.
The family eventually moved across the border to a series of French towns, rented rooms, and temporary friends.
The uprootings did not bother Surdez, who decided at a young age he liked travel.
At the age of three the little Swiss boy smuggled himself aboard a delivery cart outside the family lodgings at the Auberge du Cerf Inn and was taken on a ride through the green valleys of the Jura before the driver returned him to his frantic parents.
Surdez was a bright child whose reading covered Swiss history, William Tell, the life of Napoleon, stories of the French Foreign Legion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, and translations of American Dime novels, which were pocket-sized adventure stories full of heroes, villains, and gunfights.
A favourite was Texas Jack who battled Red Indians in the Wild West.
His elder brother Gilbert died falling from a tree.
Not long after sister Blanche was killed in a sleigh accident.
The birth of a boy in 1907, also named Gilbert, brought Eugene and Marie back together for a while but Surdez's father could not stop chasing other women for long.
The family struggled on for five more years until Surdez's now adult sisters, inspired by their father's tales of New York, history of russian roulette game they intended to emigrate to America.
Perhaps Marie believed the break up of the family would have been last rites for her marriage.
To everyone's surprise she suggested they all start a new life across the Atlantic, a fantasy of Eugene's she had previously dismissed.
Her own fantasy, less easily fulfilled, was that the move would stop her husband's adultery.
Surdez looked forward to living life to the full in the new world.
Perhaps he could be a racing driver?
Or a cowboy like Texas Jack?
The possibilities seemed endless.
But America had a few surprises in store.
Welcome To America Georges Surdez first saw the United States on 24 September 1912, a twelve-year-old boy hugging the rail of the SS Touraine as the New York skyline grew on the horizon.
Any enthusiasm Surdez felt for life in America was short lived.
The school system traumatised him.
His wages barely covered the rent on a small Westchester apartment.
Marie missed the open spaces and clean air of the Swiss valleys.
Her daughters wanted their freedom.
No-one had time to comfort young Georges in his unhappiness.
Alienated and alone he turned to his books for company and was drawn more than ever to the rootless heroes of the Foreign Legion.
In the early years of the twentieth century itinerant veterans were a common sight in France and Switzerland; some sold trinkets door-to-door to supplement their government pensions and most drank too much.
Back in Switzerland, one named Emile had told a young Surdez unsuitable stories about the realities of life in the Legion.
Emile described how his friend was shot in the jaw by pirates of the Black Flag during a fire fight on an Indochinese river and bled to death on a raft.
Surdez preferred the one about a feast thrown by legionnaires when their compound was threatened by Chinese guerrillas during the 1884-85 war for Tonkin province in north Vietnam.
The legionnaires caroused all night while in the centre of the feast an executioner decapitated Chinese prisoners.
The next day the guerrillas awoke to the sight of heads swinging by their pigtails from every branch of every tree in the compound.
Brutality was common in an organisation which welcomed the dispossessed and desperate of every nationality into its ranks.
Created in 1831 as the spearhead of France's imperial "civilising mission" in North Africa the Legion quickly became the destination of choice for criminals on the run and the emotionally disturbed looking to forget their pasts.
The fiction Surdez read about the French Foreign Legion presented a more romantic picture.
Ouida's English novel 'Under Two Flags' was a best seller in the 1860s and its plot provided the blueprint for many Legion tales to come athletic English aristocrat Victor joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero while French writers like Roger de Beauvoir and Georges d'Esparbès explored similar territory the next century.
Surdez read and re-read the French language stories he had brought from Europe.
Then in 1914 he discovered a Foreign Legion tale in the American pulp magazine All-Story.
The plot owed a lot to Ouida athletic West Point graduate Max Doran joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero but it introduced Surdez to American pulps and changed his life.
Pulp History Spawned in 1896 when Frank Andrew Munsey transformed his ailing magazine The Golden Argosy: Freighted With Treasures For Boys And Girls into plain Argosy, a home for adult adventure stories, the pulps were successors to the Dime novels Surdez had read in Switzerland.
Munsey discovered readers were more interested in racy stories than the budget paper stock he used to cut costs.
They did not care that the words blurred as ink spread through the Argosy's porous pages or the grey paper turned yellow in a month.
The stories were fast paced tales of cowboys, Indians, detectives, pilots, adventurers, soldiers, and the occasional French Foreign Legionnaire.
The covers were garish and eye catching: scantily clad blondes in danger, bi-planes locked in aerial combat, square jawed adventurers punching out foreign villains.
The pulps were home to the low rent end of the market.
Their small ads android for free roulette filled with Charles Atlas body building courses, cures for bad breath or weak bladders, photographs of 'French models', and booklets promising the power of hypnosis over young women.
Mainstream culture looked down its nose at the pulps and blamed them for moral degeneracy amongst the young.
Educationalists complained that pulp readers, and sometimes writers, were only a short step ahead of illiteracy.
But publishers were prepared to put up with the griping for one good reason: they made a lot of money.
Some of it was even passed on to the writers who fed the industry's insatiable appetite for thrilling fiction.
Raymond Chandler, creator of gumshoe Philip Marlowe, learned his trade in the pulps.
The sheer number of pulp magazines was staggering.
In a typical week news stands groaned under the weight of Adventure, Argosy, Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Detective Story Magazine, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ghost Stories, Golden Fleece, and hundreds more.
Titles appeared and died like mayflies.
When sales fell, the publishers folded the title and started another.
Surdez devoured them all.
The expatriate Swiss left school at sixteen with a head full of pulp adventure but no qualifications.
His English had improved to native standard but this had not saved him from ostracism by fellow pupils.
His French language skills did help to online roulette free a job.
The world war was raging in Europe.
While millions of men, including his beloved Foreign Legionnaires, lived like troglodytes in trench systems cut through Belgium and France, Surdez worked as a clerk in the New York office of the French High Commission.
Surdez registered for the draft when America entered the war in 1917 brown hair, grey eyes, 5'6" but was not one of the 1.
With the war over he joined an American timber firm with interests in the Côte D'Ivoire.
In 1919 Surdez sailed for the French colony, a humid square of forest and plantations in west Africa.
His work in the Côte D'Ivoire was clerical and bored him so much he resigned to strike out as an independent trader.
On business trips to Morocco and French Soudan he met serving legionnaires and heard their stories.
He even considered joining up but, after seeing Legion life first-hand, realised he was not cut out for it.
Life in the colony was dangerous enough without a rifle in his hands.
Native bandits, Malaria, and Guinea Worm disease all threatened to give Surdez a grave plot in the African sun.
Profits were not high enough to justify the risks so the Swiss learn more here his trading business in 1920 and returned to New York.
He may have been telling the truth.
But for the next twenty-seven years, apart from a few trips abroad, he never left the country.
The pulps were to blame.
Dollar a Thousand Words Back in New York with experience of French imperial Africa but little else, Surdez took a clerking job while he decided his future.
The city was booming.
The financial district was a pin cushion of skyscrapers and Broadway a dazzling strip of electric light.
In the post-war prosperity, pulps were selling more than ever.
Surdez still liked reading pulp adventures and discovered that bigger magazines like Argosy and Adventure offered good money for fresh fiction.
His travels in Africa had been less exciting than those portrayed in the magazines - more paperwork and less gunfire - but he had the experiences to tell a good story.
Through 1921 and early 1922 Surdez spent his free time writing short stories in his Brooklyn apartment.
He worked in shirt sleeves during the summer as the kids outside played in the spray from broken fire hydrants.
In the winter he wrapped up in a sweater to pound the nickel keys of his typewriter while heating pipes complained through the apartment walls.
Pulp writing attracted a mixed bunch.
Well-oiled hacks used to turning out any story in any style if there was money at the end of it rubbed shoulders with genuine genre fans like Surdez, and oddballs like Albert Richard Wetjen who touch typed his stories in the dark.
Wetjen had begun his career writing without electricity in a one-room Salem shack and now his imagination only sparked with the lights off.
Observing from the sidelines with a cynical eye was a tough crew who had lived what they wrote.
Gordon MacCreagh explored Abyssinia with an expedition searching for the Ark of the Covenant.
Talbot Mundy had been a poacher and jailbird in India.
Best known was Borden Chase, who joined the pulps when his regular job as a driver for a Chicago bootlegger was terminated after Al Capone's gunmen mowed down his employer.
Writing about gangsters in New York seemed safer than living it for real.
The crime stuff came easy check this out me so that's what I did.
They paid a dollar a thousand words.
I once heard a story that Frank Munsey would evaluate the worth of a story by how heavy the manuscript felt in his hand, but that never happened to me!
His early works were a mix of popular pulp article source - battles in darkest Africa, tough detectives and crime thrillers.
Argosy accepted the stories Adventure turned down.
The Swiss was able to quit clerking when 'A Game In The Bush', an atypical romantic adventure, was bought by the New York-based Film Booking Offices of America FBO and in 1927 turned into the movie 'South Sea Love'.
The FBO was run by Joseph Kennedy, patriarch of a sprawling Boston Catholic family who would later guide his son John to the White House.
Made silent just as talkies came into fashion, its stars were second rate and director Ralph Ince well past his best.
He had already embarked on a literary path that would sustain him for the next fifteen years.
Sons of the Sword Surdez had experimented with French Foreign Legion fiction since the early days of his career.
But it was the publication of P C Wren's novel 'Beau Geste' the following year that created a market for all things legionary.
Beau Geste's plot was familiar to best roulette game free other of Ouida aristocratic Englishman Michael 'Beau' Geste joins the Legion to escape social shame etc.
Englishman Wren never served in the Foreign Legion but had done his research and told a good yarn.
The Legion became all the rage.
Laurel and Hardy signed up in 'Beau Hunks', and even Mickey Mouse donned the kepi.
Pulp editors wanted a piece of legionary action and Surdez was well placed to exploit their hunger.
But he shared Hemingway's interest in the psychology of men of action.
Surdez's legionnaires were not Ouida-like aristocrats joining up to escape their pasts, but professional soldiers plagued by moral weakness and doubt in a foreign land.
His work sold well Adventure alone took over 100 stories in the twenties but Surdez never made it into the top tier of pulp writers whose name on the cover sent a magazine flying off the new stands.
He was too sparing with the blood and guts.
His 1927 novel 'Demon Caravan' avoids action for a well-observed power struggle between moderate and conservative Muslims in a remote kingdom.
Readers were left with the sneaking suspicion Surdez regarded himself as a serious writer.
He tried to cover himself with exotic settings, dark-eyed native girls and occasional gratuitous titillation.
Good money could be made in the pulps, but writers had to work hard for it.
Bedford-Jones 'King of the Pulps' was living proof a man could even get rich behind a typewriter.
With at least four stories always on the go, so if inspiration dried up on one he switched to another, Bedford-Jones could write 25,000 words a day to meet an emergency deadline and regarded less https://entermarket.ru/roulette/american-roulette-game-online.html 6,000 before bedtime on an ordinary day as laziness.
A friend rang his home to be told by Bedford-Jones' wife that her husband was hard at work on a novel.
Surdez was not as prolific as Bedford-Jones no-one was but he churned out enough short stories for the hungry maw of the pulp industry to ensure a healthy bank balance.
Along with a fat cheque from Joe Kennedy for 'South Sea Love', the pulp money made him abandon any lingering thoughts of leaving for Africa or Switzerland.
In 1928 he became a naturalised American citizen, encouraged by his wife Edith McKenna, an older schoolteacher he had married in 1922.
She wanted him to put down roots.
But despite assurances to Edith, psychologically Surdez remained with one foot in America and the other in Europe.
America was the nation which bewildered and divided his family and he never quite trusted it.
The year after his citizenship was granted Surdez took his wife on a long tour of the French colonies in Africa and the Far East, where he squeezed more stories out of any legionnaires he met.
The couple left an America that was confident and prosperous.
When they returned in 1930 the economy was in ruins.
Russian Roulette While the Surdezs were away, share prices tumbled on the Https://entermarket.ru/roulette/no-deposit-bonus-for-roulette.html York stock exchange.
Panic selling followed and, within weeks of the crash on Wall Street, economic disaster surged like a tsunami over the nation's financial markets.
Businesses went under and banks closed.
Unemployment and hardship succeeded the boom time of the twenties.
Freelancers in the pulp world heard the wolf howling game drinking ukulele revolver roulette russian the door louder than most.
In 1929 Surdez could submit work to seventy-three pulp magazines.
Three years later that number had dwindled to thirty-five and rates of pay to less than half a cent a word.
Many pulpsters stopped writing and took what jobs they could to get by.
Surdez refused to quit.
He defiantly gave his profession as 'magazine writer' in the 1930 census and boasted he was known abroad - link March From Yesterday', a collection of Legion tales, had been published in Britain, and his stories were bootlegged for Seikkailujen Maailma, a Finnish pulp play free game online roulette with a relaxed attitude to copyright.
Adventure and Argosy continued to run Surdez's Legion stories but he had to look outside the pulp world to pay the rent.
Collier's Illustrated Weekly was a popular mainstream magazine which made its reputation pioneering socially-concerned photojournalism in the early years of the century.
In the 1920s it went middle-brow after discovering readers preferred serialised novels to exposés of the child labour laws.
The Wall Street Crash knocked it down a peg.
Advertising revenue during the 1930s was never more than half its pre-Crash level.
Surdez wanted to get on board.
The magazine's mid-thirties incarnation was an easy-reading mixture of aspirational articles on subjects like big game fishing or business success, the occasional painted pin-up, and crowd pleasing fiction, often just as escapist as anything in Adventure.
Surdez polished his prose and sent in his work.
Surdez was a cut above his fellow pulp history of russian roulette game his characters had at least two dimensionsbut he would have disappeared from the cultural memory like Bedford-Jones and Borden Chase if it had not been for a short story in Collier's that continued to send out ripples across the years long after the stone had history of russian roulette game thrown.
On 30 January 1937 a 1,600-word piece of fiction by Surdez called 'Russian Roulette' appeared in the magazine.
A briskly told tale of adventure, gambling, and death amongst Foreign Legionnaires in an isolated North African outpost, the story christened and popularised the game that would kill more than a thousand Americans.
With lost carbons, missing letters, and apartment moves, Surdez did not leave many papers behind and the few he did do not explain where he got the name for Russian Roulette.
The suicidal gun game had been around since at least 1920, as adventurers in Russia during the civil war had testified, but Surdez was the first to use the name in print.
It may have been floating around unrecorded before Surdez nailed it to the page.
The odds are that the Swiss came up with it himself.
It was the kind of tough guy gambling-with-death approach that years of working in the Pulps gave you.
The story takes the form of a letter from Hugo Feldheim, a young German recruit, to his superior officer asking for advice on how to cover up the suicide of a Russian comrade.
Sergeant Burkowski is a compulsive gambler who regularly fleeces his comrades in games of chance.
When they cut their losses and refuse to play he becomes depressed.
In conversation with Feldheim he asks whether the German has heard of 'Russian Roulette'.
It was practiced, says Burkowski, in Romania during 1917, the last days of the Russian participation in the World War when the Tsar's demoralised army was on the retreat.
There were five history of russian roulette game to one that the hammer would set off a live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
Sometimes it happened, sometimes not.
The hammer falls on an empty chamber and the Russian is invigorated.
He continues to play Russian Roulette in this way for several weeks.
Burkowski still likes to gamble and challenges Feldheim to a variant of the game.
He will remove all but one of the bullets from the revolver, spin the cylinder and see if he can avoid death.
Feldheim tries to argue him out of it but is pushed into making a bet.
The Russian lives and Feldheim loses a month's wages.
Later that night a contrite Burkowski visits him to return the money.
He cheated, he explains, as he knew where the bullet was in the cylinder.
Feldheim refuses to accept the money and later that night the Russian shoots himself.
I wondered whether he had tried the bet all over again, privately.
But when I examined the weapon, I discovered that all the chambers were loaded.
I hope the Lieutenant can tell me how to arrange this story so that it may satisfy the authorities.
It is not quite clear to me whether it would be right to reveal that he had shot himself for cheating.
On the other hand, have I the right to falsify an official report?
Eight months later a young man called Thomas H Markley jnr shot himself dead on his twenty-first birthday in Austin, Texas.
His was the first Russian Roulette death in America.
And something scurried in.
Motive and Memory Georges Arthur Surdez died on 5 November 1949 in Brooklyn.
His last ten years had been tough.
The pulps picked up in the late thirties and for a few years Surdez was able to place a decent amount of work with them.
Then in 1941 the war reached America.
Japanese Zero fighters dived out of a clear blue afternoon sky and atacked Pearl Harbour, the Hawaiian naval base.
Four days later Nazi Germany declared war on America.
He could have done with the regular army pay check.
His Foreign Legion stories had recently become about as popular as fresh shrapnel and money was becoming a problem.
In June 1940 Nazi Germany had overrun France.
A New Order was established.
Legionnaires found themselves having to choose between the collaborationist French government at Vichy, far-right extremists in Paris, and a resistance movement hiding weapons in every attic.
That kind of complex situation did not translate well into magazines across the Atlantic.
Surdez managed to place a few more stories with the pulps, all set before the war, but the pulps soon made it clear they wanted nothing to do with the Foreign Legion.
His new stories were about the French resistance.
Contemporary war stories were money makers.
Too much competition and not enough magazines.
The pulp market plunged down again during the war due to a shortage of paper and, crucially, metal for staples.
Surdez spread his talent thinly over a number of different publications but times were hard.
His marriage collapsed in 1943 when Edith moved out to live with another man.
Surdez consoled himself with an autobiographical novel of his childhood, his first conventional mainstream writing venture.
When it came out in 1945 reviews were respectful, but sales low.
Surdez went back to the surviving pulps and managed to keep a roof above his head until death came knocking four years later.
The only publication to record his passing was the Wilson Library Gazette, a publication for librarians to keep their card indexes up to date.
There are lots of unanswered questions about 'Russian Roulette', not least why Surdez thought it was more dangerous to play it with one bullet than five, but the one that screams loudest for an answer is why the Swiss did not step forward during his lifetime to take credit for inventing, or at least popularising, the practice.
By the time of his death Russian Roulette was an established part of American popular culture.
If he missed those he might have read the New York Times 17 February 1949 story about Phillip Fernette.
Or the 21 September 1947 story about two teenage boys who shot a girl dead by playing Russian Roulette with règle la roulette casino gun pointing at her chest.
Maybe he simply missed the signs that his story had slid off the printed page and into real life.
Writers, especially those hacking out stories daily when not cursing their ex-wives, can be an insular mob.
Or perhaps the public arena was not for him.
Hints exist, bat squeaks of suspicion among the historical background noise, that Surdez could have had political reasons for wishing to stay out of the post-WWII spotlight.
Surdez may have followed him down that road.
Surdez have skated over the worst aspects of legionary life - 'stories of atrocities in the Legion, or by the Legion, history of russian roulette game me a laugh' — but he always portrayed Black and Arab characters sympathetically.
You steal the desert away from the Arabs and you have taken land from the black people.
There is only one difference between you and me.
I steal for myself.
Not much in the way of evidence but, combined with the fact that in the early 1930s the French Sûreté in Africa intercepted letters to Surdez from black independence activist Amadou Sall, the alarm bells ring a little louder.
Sall was a political nationalist from Senegal who had lived in New York until the government deported him in 1931.
He was active on behalf of the United Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey's UNIA.
By the time Surdez's pen friend wrote to him, the UNIA was sinking.
Flamboyant founder Marcus Garvey had been kicked out.
But it still remained a formidable organisation committed to racial equality and anti-colonialism, ideals it was prepared to back up with armed paramilitaries like the African Legion.
The FBI monitored it.
European powers in Africa kept a wary eye on the situation.
The letters from Sall https://entermarket.ru/roulette/casino-winners-roulette.html have been entirely innocent or they could be an indication Surdez was more radical in his opinions than his French Foreign Legion stories indicated.
Frost was growing on the cold war by the late 1940s.
Twenty-two Russian Roulette players died in America the year Surdez passed away.
Like a watch ticking on the wrist of a corpse, the practice he introduced to America lived on.
For the record, Surdez worked in the Powder Bureau of the French High Commission during World War One.
The Amadou Sall letters are, briefly, mentioned in 'The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans, 1923-1945' University of California Press, 2006 H.
Russian roulette deaths reported in Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, and Nevada State Journal.
Behind The Scenes This is a version of a sample chapter I wrote for a projected book on the history of Russian Roulette.
I started the research after finishing the Spanish version ofgot derailed a few months later by having to rewrite Franco for the English language version, then got back on track in 2009.
It stayed that way after the problems were mopped up because I discovered a new obsession with of the 1960s.
Will Christopher Othen's history of Russian Roulette still get written?
Write to your MP.
Recommended Articles For You One hundred years of bankrupt British aristocrats, corrupt golden youths, and frankly untrustworthy remittance men.
Ideal reading for social-climbing sociopaths.
All website material © Christopher Othen 2009-2014.

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"Russian Roulette" - also known as "Hussar Roulette", one of the most extreme game in the humans history. One shot at maybe you're dead. "Russian Roulette" appeared in the 19th century, but who invented the game is unknown.


Enjoy!
Russian Roulette (game show) - Wikipedia
Valid for casinos
Russian Roulette (game show) - Wikipedia
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The suicidal gun game of Russian Roulette originated in Tsarist Russia but remained nameless until it hit America just before the Second World War.
Its gambling moniker was the invention of Georges Arthur Surdez, a Swiss-born and Brooklyn-based writer of pulp fiction stories.
After you've read this check out my new blog for all kinds of cultural and military weirdness.
The Man Who Invented Russian Roulette The Forgotten Life of Georges Arthur Surdez 1900-49 Scattered farm check this out with roofs the colour of dark chocolate cling to sloping daffodil meadows at the foot of the Jura mountains.
Cows amble through pastures with clanking history of russian roulette game bells around their necks.
Pure picture postcard to outsiders, this tranquil part of Switzerland is home to a town German-speakers know as Biel but francophones prefer to call Bienne.
Georges Arthur Surdez was born here in 1900 to a French-speaking middle class family with its fair share of demons.
The arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century changed Bienne from a rustic backwater to a bustling town.
Its watchmakers seized the opportunity to transform their industry.
The days of craftsmen working alone in cottage back rooms were gone.
Surdez shared the family home with authoritative russian roulette reality game show online advise elder brother and three elder sisters.
An adult brother and sister were making new lives for themselves in America.
They had been gone so long that the smart toys they sent Surdez at Christmas stirred no memories.
His father Eugene was a watchmaker, and mother Marie happy to devote her life to her children.
Like many outwardly respectable families, a maggot wriggled inside the apple.
That was putting it mildly.
Eugene Surdez's obsessive adultery was the most public display of his dissatisfaction with his life.
He was dissatisfied with the love of his wife.
He was dissatisfied with his job as a watchmaker.
Most of all he was dissatisfied living in Bienne while his two eldest children prospered in the United States.
As a young man, Eugene lived in New York for four years and remained awed by his memories of the city.
He never forgot the sight of a giant stone arm displayed in Madison Square as the Statue of Liberty arrived from France piece by piece.
After problems with his job, he returned to Switzerland in 1882 and spent the next thirty years regretting the move.
The regret oozed out in drink and adultery.
It poisoned his marriage.
Surdez was only a few years old when his father pulled the first of what would be many source acts.
Eugene abandoned work and home for several weeks, then reappeared to announce he had found another job in a distant town.
The family had no choice but to follow him.
More moves occurred over the next decade, triggered by Eugene's pursuit of a new mistress or a drunken brawl that attracted the attention of the police.
The family eventually moved across the border to a series of French towns, rented rooms, and temporary friends.
The uprootings did not bother Surdez, who decided at a young age he liked travel.
At the age of three the little Swiss boy smuggled himself aboard a delivery cart outside the family lodgings at the Auberge du Cerf Inn and was taken on a ride through the green valleys of the Jura before the driver returned him to his frantic parents.
Surdez was a bright child whose reading covered Swiss history, William Tell, the life of Napoleon, stories of the French Foreign Legion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, and translations of American Dime novels, which were pocket-sized adventure stories full of heroes, villains, and gunfights.
A favourite was Texas Jack who battled Red Indians in the Wild West.
His elder brother Gilbert died falling from a tree.
Not long after sister Blanche was killed in a sleigh accident.
The birth of a boy in 1907, also named Gilbert, brought Eugene and Marie back together for a while but Surdez's father could not stop chasing other women for long.
The family struggled on for five more years until Surdez's now adult sisters, inspired by their father's tales of New York, announced they intended to emigrate to America.
Perhaps Marie believed the break up of the family would have been last rites for her marriage.
To everyone's surprise she suggested they all start a new life across the Atlantic, a fantasy of Eugene's she had previously dismissed.
Her own fantasy, less easily fulfilled, was that the move would stop her husband's adultery.
Surdez looked forward to living life to the full in the new world.
Perhaps he could be a racing driver?
Or a here like Texas Jack?
The possibilities seemed endless.
But America had a few surprises in store.
Welcome To America Georges Surdez first saw the United States on 24 September 1912, a twelve-year-old boy hugging the rail of the SS Touraine as the New York skyline grew on the horizon.
Any enthusiasm Surdez felt for life in America was short lived.
The school system traumatised him.
His wages barely covered the rent on a small Westchester apartment.
Marie missed the open spaces and clean air of the Swiss valleys.
Her daughters wanted their freedom.
No-one had time to comfort young Georges in his unhappiness.
Alienated and alone he turned to his books for company and was drawn more than ever to the rootless heroes of the Foreign Legion.
In the early years of the twentieth century itinerant veterans were a common sight in France and Switzerland; some sold trinkets door-to-door to supplement their government pensions and most drank too much.
Back in Switzerland, one named Emile had told a young Surdez unsuitable stories about the realities of life in the Legion.
Emile described how his friend was shot in the jaw by pirates of the Black Flag during a fire fight on an Indochinese river and bled to death on a raft.
Surdez preferred the one about a feast thrown by legionnaires when their compound was threatened by Chinese guerrillas during the 1884-85 war for Tonkin province in north Vietnam.
The legionnaires caroused all night while in the centre of the history of russian roulette game an executioner decapitated Chinese prisoners.
The next day the guerrillas awoke to the sight of heads swinging by their pigtails from every branch of every tree in the compound.
Brutality was common in an organisation which welcomed the dispossessed click the following article desperate of every nationality into its ranks.
Created in 1831 as the spearhead of France's imperial "civilising mission" in North Africa the Legion quickly became the destination of choice for criminals on the run and the emotionally disturbed looking to forget their pasts.
The fiction Surdez read about the French Foreign Legion presented a more romantic picture.
Ouida's English novel 'Under Two Flags' was a best seller in the 1860s and its plot provided the blueprint for many Legion tales to come athletic English aristocrat Victor joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero while French writers like Roger de Beauvoir and Georges d'Esparbès explored similar territory the next century.
Surdez read and re-read the French language stories he had brought from Europe.
Then in 1914 he discovered a Foreign Legion tale in the American pulp magazine All-Story.
The plot owed a lot to Ouida athletic West Point graduate Max Doran joins up to escape social shame and becomes a hero but it introduced Surdez to American pulps and changed his life.
Pulp History Spawned in 1896 when Frank Andrew Munsey transformed his ailing magazine The Golden Argosy: Freighted With Treasures For Boys And Girls into plain Argosy, a home for adult adventure stories, the pulps were successors to the Dime novels Surdez had read in Switzerland.
Munsey discovered readers were more interested in racy stories than the budget paper stock he used to cut costs.
They did not care that the words blurred as ink spread through the Argosy's porous pages or the grey paper turned yellow in a month.
The stories were fast paced tales of cowboys, Indians, detectives, pilots, adventurers, soldiers, and the occasional French Foreign Legionnaire.
The covers were garish and eye catching: scantily clad blondes in danger, bi-planes locked in aerial combat, square jawed adventurers punching out foreign villains.
The pulps were home to the low rent end of the market.
Their small ads were filled article source Charles Atlas body building courses, cures for bad breath or weak bladders, photographs of 'French models', and booklets promising the power of hypnosis over young women.
Mainstream culture looked down its nose at the pulps and blamed them for moral degeneracy amongst the young.
Educationalists complained that pulp readers, and sometimes writers, were only a short step ahead of illiteracy.
But publishers were prepared to put up with the griping for one good reason: they made a lot of money.
Some of it was even passed on to the writers who fed the industry's insatiable appetite for thrilling fiction.
Raymond Chandler, creator of gumshoe Philip Marlowe, learned his trade in the pulps.
The sheer number of pulp magazines was staggering.
In a typical week news stands groaned under the weight of Adventure, Argosy, Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Detective Story Magazine, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ghost Stories, Golden Fleece, and hundreds more.
Titles appeared and died like mayflies.
When sales fell, the publishers folded the title and started another.
Surdez devoured them all.
The expatriate Swiss left school at sixteen with a head full of pulp adventure but no qualifications.
His English had improved to native standard but this had not saved him from ostracism by fellow pupils.
His French language skills did help to get a job.
The world war was raging in Europe.
While millions of men, including his beloved Foreign Legionnaires, lived like troglodytes in trench systems cut through Belgium and France, Surdez worked as a clerk in the New York office of the French High Commission.
Surdez registered for the draft when America entered the war in 1917 brown hair, grey eyes, 5'6" but was not one of the 1.
With the war over he joined an American timber firm with interests in the Côte D'Ivoire.
In 1919 Surdez sailed for the French colony, a humid square of forest and plantations in west Africa.
His work in the Côte D'Ivoire was clerical and bored him so much he resigned to strike out as an independent trader.
On business trips to Morocco and French Soudan he met serving legionnaires and heard their stories.
He even considered joining up but, after seeing Legion life first-hand, realised he was not cut out for it.
Life in the colony was dangerous enough without a rifle in his hands.
Native bandits, Malaria, and Guinea Worm disease all threatened to give Surdez a grave plot in the African sun.
Profits were not high enough to justify the risks so the Swiss closed his trading business in 1920 and returned to New York.
He may have been telling the truth.
But for the next twenty-seven years, apart from a few trips abroad, he never left the country.
The pulps were to blame.
Dollar a Thousand Words Back in New York with experience of French imperial Africa but little else, Surdez took a clerking job while he decided his future.
The city was booming.
The financial district was a pin cushion of skyscrapers and Broadway a dazzling strip of electric light.
In the post-war prosperity, pulps were selling more than ever.
Surdez still liked reading pulp adventures and discovered that bigger magazines like Argosy have casino amsterdam roulette opinion Adventure offered good money for fresh fiction.
His travels in Africa had been less exciting than those portrayed in the magazines - more paperwork and less gunfire - but he had the experiences to tell a good story.
Through 1921 and early 1922 Surdez spent his free time writing short stories in his Brooklyn apartment.
He worked in shirt sleeves during the summer as the kids outside played in the spray from broken fire hydrants.
In the winter he wrapped up in a sweater to pound the nickel keys of his typewriter while heating pipes complained through the apartment walls.
Pulp writing attracted a mixed bunch.
Well-oiled hacks used to turning out any story in any style if there was money at the end of it rubbed shoulders with genuine genre fans like Surdez, and oddballs like Albert Richard Wetjen who touch typed his stories in the dark.
Wetjen had begun his career writing without electricity in a one-room Salem shack and now his imagination only sparked with the lights off.
Observing from the sidelines with a cynical eye was a tough crew who had lived what they wrote.
Gordon MacCreagh explored Abyssinia with an expedition searching for the Ark of the Covenant.
Talbot Mundy had been a poacher and jailbird in India.
Best known was Borden Chase, who joined the pulps when his regular job as a driver for a Chicago bootlegger was terminated after Al Capone's history of russian roulette game mowed down his employer.
Writing about gangsters in New York seemed safer than living it for real.
The crime stuff came easy to me so that's what I did.
They paid a dollar a thousand words.
I once heard a story that Frank Munsey would evaluate the worth of a story by how heavy the manuscript felt in his hand, but that never happened to me!
His early works were a mix of popular pulp themes - battles in darkest Africa, tough detectives and crime thrillers.
Argosy accepted the stories Adventure turned down.
The Swiss was able to quit clerking when 'A Game In The Bush', an atypical romantic adventure, was bought by the New York-based Film Booking Offices of America FBO and in 1927 turned into the movie 'South Sea Love'.
The FBO was run by Joseph Kennedy, patriarch of a sprawling Boston Catholic family who would later guide his son John to the White House.
Made silent just as talkies came into fashion, its stars were second rate and director Ralph Ince well past his best.
He had already embarked on a literary history of russian roulette game that would sustain him for the next fifteen years.
Sons of the Sword Surdez had experimented with French Foreign Download free for pc fiction since the early days of his career.
But it was the publication of P C Wren's novel 'Beau Geste' the following year that created a market for all things legionary.
Beau Geste's plot was familiar to readers of Ouida aristocratic Englishman Michael 'Beau' Geste joins the Legion to escape social shame etc.
Englishman Wren never served in the Foreign Legion but had click his research and told a good yarn.
The Legion became all the rage.
Laurel and Hardy signed up in 'Beau Hunks', and even Mickey Mouse donned the kepi.
Pulp editors wanted a piece of legionary action and Surdez was well placed to exploit their hunger.
But he shared Hemingway's interest in the psychology of men of action.
Surdez's legionnaires were not Ouida-like aristocrats joining up to escape their pasts, but professional soldiers plagued by moral weakness and doubt in a foreign land.
His work sold well Adventure alone took over 100 stories in the twenties but Surdez never made it into the top tier of pulp writers whose name on the cover sent a magazine flying off the new stands.
He was too sparing with the blood and guts.
His 1927 novel 'Demon Caravan' avoids action for a well-observed power struggle between moderate and conservative Muslims in a remote kingdom.
Readers were left with the sneaking suspicion Surdez regarded himself as a serious writer.
He tried to cover himself with exotic settings, dark-eyed native girls and occasional gratuitous titillation.
Good money could be made in the pulps, but writers had to work hard for it.
Bedford-Jones 'King of the Pulps' was living proof a man could even get rich behind a typewriter.
With at least four stories always on the go, so if inspiration dried up on one he switched to another, Bedford-Jones could write 25,000 words a day to meet an emergency deadline and regarded less than 6,000 before history of russian roulette game on an ordinary day as laziness.
A friend rang his home to be told by Bedford-Jones' wife that her husband was hard at work on a novel.
Surdez was not as prolific as Bedford-Jones no-one was but he churned out enough short stories for the hungry maw of the pulp industry to ensure a healthy bank balance.
Along with a fat cheque from Joe Kennedy for 'South Sea Love', the pulp money made him abandon any lingering thoughts of leaving for Africa or Switzerland.
In 1928 he became a naturalised American citizen, encouraged by his wife Edith McKenna, an older schoolteacher he had married in 1922.
She wanted him to put down roots.
But despite assurances to Edith, psychologically Surdez remained with one foot in America and the other in Europe.
America was the nation which bewildered and divided his family and he never quite trusted it.
The year after his citizenship was granted Surdez took his wife on a long tour of the French colonies in Africa and the Far East, where he squeezed more stories out of any legionnaires he met.
The couple left an America that was confident and prosperous.
When they returned in 1930 the economy was in ruins.
Russian Roulette While the Surdezs were away, share prices tumbled on the New York stock exchange.
Panic selling followed and, within weeks of the crash on Wall Street, economic disaster surged like a tsunami over the nation's financial markets.
Businesses went under and banks closed.
Unemployment and hardship succeeded the boom time of the twenties.
Freelancers in the pulp world heard the wolf howling at the door louder than most.
In 1929 Surdez could submit work to seventy-three pulp magazines.
Three years later that number had dwindled to thirty-five and rates of pay to less than half a cent a word.
Many pulpsters stopped writing and took what jobs they could to get by.
Surdez refused to quit.
He defiantly gave his profession as 'magazine writer' in the 1930 census and boasted he was known abroad - 'They March From Yesterday', a collection of Legion tales, had been published in Britain, and his stories were bootlegged for Seikkailujen Maailma, a Finnish pulp magazine with a relaxed attitude to copyright.
Adventure and Argosy continued to run Surdez's Legion stories but he had to look outside the pulp world to pay the rent.
Collier's Illustrated Weekly was a popular mainstream magazine which made its reputation pioneering socially-concerned photojournalism in the early years of the century.
In the 1920s it went middle-brow after discovering readers preferred serialised novels to exposés of the child labour laws.
The Wall Street Crash knocked it down a peg.
Advertising revenue during the 1930s was never more than half its pre-Crash level.
Surdez wanted to get on board.
The magazine's mid-thirties incarnation was an easy-reading mixture of aspirational articles on subjects like big game fishing or business success, the occasional painted pin-up, and crowd pleasing fiction, often just as escapist as anything in Adventure.
Surdez polished his prose and sent in his work.
Surdez was a cut above his fellow pulp hacks his characters had at least two just click for sourcebut he would have disappeared from the cultural memory like Bedford-Jones and Borden Chase if it had not been for a short story in Collier's that continued to send out ripples across the years long after the stone had been thrown.
On 30 January 1937 a 1,600-word piece of fiction by Surdez called 'Russian Roulette' appeared in the magazine.
A briskly told tale of adventure, gambling, and death amongst Foreign Legionnaires in an isolated North African outpost, the story christened and popularised the game that would kill more than a thousand Americans.
With lost carbons, missing letters, and apartment moves, Surdez did not leave many papers behind and the few he did do not explain where he got the name for Russian Roulette.
The suicidal gun game had been around since at least 1920, as adventurers in Russia during the civil war had testified, but Surdez was the first to use the name in print.
It may have been floating around unrecorded before Surdez nailed it to the page.
The odds are that the Swiss came up with it himself.
It was the kind of tough guy gambling-with-death approach that years of working in the Pulps gave you.
The story takes the form of a letter from Hugo Feldheim, a young German recruit, to his superior officer asking for advice on how to cover up the suicide of a Russian comrade.
Sergeant Burkowski is a compulsive gambler who regularly fleeces his comrades in games of chance.
When they cut their losses and refuse to play he becomes depressed.
In conversation with Feldheim he asks whether the German has heard of 'Russian Roulette'.
It was practiced, says Burkowski, in Romania during 1917, the last days of the Russian participation in the World War when the Tsar's demoralised army was on the retreat.
There were five chances to one that the hammer would set off a live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
Sometimes it happened, sometimes not.
The hammer falls on an empty chamber and the Russian is invigorated.
He continues to play Russian Roulette in this way for several weeks.
Burkowski still likes to gamble and challenges Feldheim to a variant of the game.
He will remove all but one of the bullets from the revolver, spin the cylinder and see if he can avoid death.
Feldheim tries to argue him out of it but is pushed into making a bet.
The Russian lives and Feldheim loses a month's wages.
Later that night a contrite Burkowski visits him to return the money.
He cheated, he explains, as tricks in casino roulette knew where the bullet was in the cylinder.
Feldheim refuses to accept the money and later that night the Russian shoots himself.
I wondered whether he had tried the bet all over again, privately.
But when I examined the weapon, I discovered that all the chambers were loaded.
I hope the Lieutenant can tell me how to arrange this story so that it may satisfy the authorities.
It link not quite clear to me whether it would be right to reveal that he had shot himself for cheating.
On the other hand, have I the right to falsify an official report?
Eight months later a young man called Thomas H Markley jnr shot himself dead on his twenty-first birthday in Austin, Texas.
His was the first Russian Roulette death in America.
And something scurried in.
Motive and Memory Georges Arthur Surdez died on 5 November 1949 in Brooklyn.
His last ten years had been tough.
The pulps picked up in the late thirties and for a few years Surdez was able to place a decent amount of work with them.
Then in 1941 the war reached America.
Japanese Zero fighters dived out of a clear blue afternoon sky and atacked Pearl Harbour, the Hawaiian naval base.
Four days later Nazi Germany declared war on America.
He could have done with the regular army pay check.
His Foreign Legion stories had recently become about as popular as fresh shrapnel and money was becoming a problem.
In June 1940 Nazi Germany had overrun France.
A New Order was established.
Legionnaires found themselves having to choose between the collaborationist French government at Vichy, far-right extremists in Paris, and a resistance movement hiding weapons in every attic.
That kind of complex situation did not translate well into magazines across the Atlantic.
Surdez managed to place a few more stories with the pulps, all set before the war, but the pulps soon made it clear they wanted nothing to do history of russian roulette game the Foreign Legion.
His new stories were about the French resistance.
Contemporary war stories were money makers.
Too much competition and not enough magazines.
The pulp market plunged down again during the war due to a shortage of paper and, crucially, metal for staples.
Surdez spread his talent thinly over a number of different publications but times were hard.
His marriage collapsed in 1943 when Edith moved out to live with another man.
Surdez consoled himself with an autobiographical novel of his childhood, his first conventional mainstream writing venture.
When it came out in 1945 reviews were respectful, but sales low.
Surdez went back to the surviving pulps and managed to keep a roof above his head until death came knocking four years later.
The only publication to record his passing was the Wilson Library Gazette, a publication for librarians to keep their card indexes up to date.
There are lots of unanswered questions about 'Russian Roulette', not least why Surdez thought it was more dangerous to play it with one bullet than five, but the one that screams loudest for an answer is why the Swiss did not step forward during his lifetime to take credit for inventing, or at least popularising, the practice.
By the time of his death Russian Roulette was an established part of American popular culture.
If he missed those he might have read the New York Times 17 February 1949 story about Phillip Fernette.
Or the 21 September 1947 story about two teenage boys who shot a girl dead by playing Russian Roulette with the gun pointing at her chest.
Maybe he simply missed the signs that his story had slid off the printed page and into real life.
Writers, especially those hacking out stories daily when not cursing their ex-wives, can be an insular mob.
Or perhaps the public arena was not for him.
Hints exist, bat squeaks of suspicion among the historical background noise, that Surdez could have had political reasons for wishing to stay out of the post-WWII spotlight.
Surdez may have followed him down that road.
Surdez have skated over the best way to win casino roulette aspects of legionary life - 'stories of atrocities in the Legion, or by the Legion, hand me a laugh' — but he always portrayed Black and Arab characters sympathetically.
You steal the desert away from the Arabs and you have taken land from the black people.
There is only one difference between you and me.
I steal for myself.
Not much in the way of evidence but, combined with the fact that in the early 1930s the French Sûreté in Africa intercepted letters to Surdez from black independence activist Amadou Sall, the alarm bells ring a little louder.
Sall was a political nationalist from Senegal who had lived in New York until the government deported him in 1931.
He was active on behalf of the United Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey's UNIA.
By the time Surdez's pen friend wrote to him, the UNIA was sinking.
Flamboyant founder Marcus Garvey had been kicked out.
But it still remained a formidable organisation committed to racial equality and anti-colonialism, ideals it was prepared to back up with armed paramilitaries like the African Legion.
The FBI monitored it.
European powers in Africa kept a wary eye on the situation.
The letters from Sall may have been entirely innocent or they could be an indication Surdez was more radical in his opinions than his French Foreign Legion stories indicated.
Frost was growing on the cold war by the late 1940s.
Twenty-two Russian Roulette players died in America the year Surdez passed away.
Like a watch ticking on the wrist of a corpse, the practice he introduced to America lived on.
For the record, Surdez worked in the Powder Bureau of the French High Commission during World War One.
Russian roulette deaths reported in Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, and Nevada State Journal.
Behind The Scenes This is a version of a sample chapter I wrote for a projected book on the history of Russian Roulette.
I started the research after finishing the Spanish version ofgot derailed a few months later by having to rewrite Franco for the English language version, then got back on track in 2009.
It stayed that way after the problems were mopped up because I discovered a new obsession with of the 1960s.
Will Christopher Othen's history of Russian Roulette still get written?
Write to your MP.
Recommended Articles For You One hundred years of bankrupt British aristocrats, corrupt golden youths, and frankly untrustworthy remittance men.
Ideal reading for social-climbing sociopaths.
All website material © Christopher Othen 2009-2014.

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